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  /*
   * Copyright (c) 2002 JSON.org
   *
   * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
   * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
   * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
   * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
   * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
   * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
  *
  * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
  * copies or substantial portions of the Software.
  *
  * The Software shall be used for Good, not Evil.
  *
  * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
  * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
  * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
  * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
  * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
  * SOFTWARE.
  */
 package com.amazonaws.util.json;
 
 import java.io.Writer;
 import java.util.Date;
 
JSONWriter provides a quick and convenient way of producing JSON text. The texts produced strictly conform to JSON syntax rules. No whitespace is added, so the results are ready for transmission or storage. Each instance of JSONWriter can produce one JSON text.

A JSONWriter instance provides a value method for appending values to the text, and a key method for adding keys before values in objects. There are array and endArray methods that make and bound array values, and object and endObject methods which make and bound object values. All of these methods return the JSONWriter instance, permitting a cascade style. For example,

 new JSONWriter(myWriter)
     .object()
         .key("JSON")
         .value("Hello, World!")
     .endObject();
which writes
 {"JSON":"Hello, World!"}

The first method called must be array or object. There are no methods for adding commas or colons. JSONWriter adds them for you. Objects and arrays can be nested up to 70 levels deep.

This can sometimes be easier than using a JSONObject to build a string.

Version:
2010-03-11
 
 public class JSONWriter {

    
DynamoDB supports nested attributes up to 32 levels deep. http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/Limits.html and the serialized JSON form of the map-depth attribute will be 32*2 levels deep: {"level-0" : {"M" : {"level-1" : {"M" : ...
 
     private static final int maxdepth = 70;

    
The comma flag determines if a comma should be output before the next value.
 
     private boolean comma;

    
The current mode. Values: 'a' (array), 'd' (done), 'i' (initial), 'k' (key), 'o' (object).
 
     protected char mode;

    
The object/array stack.
 
     private JSONObject stack[];

    
The stack top index. A value of 0 indicates that the stack is empty.
 
     private int top;

    
The writer that will receive the output.
    protected Writer writer;

    
Make a fresh JSONWriter. It can be used to build one JSON text.
    public JSONWriter(Writer w) {
        this. = false;
        this. = 'i';
        this. = new JSONObject[];
        this. = 0;
        this. = w;
    }

    
Append a value.

Parameters:
s A string value.
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If the value is out of sequence.
    private JSONWriter append(String sthrows JSONException {
        if (s == null) {
            throw new JSONException("Null pointer");
        }
        if (this. == 'o' || this. == 'a') {
            try {
                if (this. && this. == 'a') {
                    this..write(',');
                }
                this..write(s);
            } catch (IOException e) {
                throw new JSONException(e);
            }
            if (this. == 'o') {
                this. = 'k';
            }
            this. = true;
            return this;
        }
        throw new JSONException("Value out of sequence.");
    }

    
Begin appending a new array. All values until the balancing endArray will be appended to this array. The endArray method must be called to mark the array's end.

Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If the nesting is too deep, or if the object is started in the wrong place (for example as a key or after the end of the outermost array or object).
    public JSONWriter array() throws JSONException {
        if (this. == 'i' || this. == 'o' || this. == 'a') {
            this.push(null);
            this.append("[");
            this. = false;
            return this;
        }
        throw new JSONException("Misplaced array.");
    }

    
End something.

Parameters:
m Mode
c Closing character
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If unbalanced.
    private JSONWriter end(char mchar cthrows JSONException {
        if (this. != m) {
            throw new JSONException(m == 'a' ? "Misplaced endArray." :
                    "Misplaced endObject.");
        }
        this.pop(m);
        try {
            this..write(c);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new JSONException(e);
        }
        this. = true;
        return this;
    }

    
End an array. This method most be called to balance calls to array.

Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If incorrectly nested.
    public JSONWriter endArray() throws JSONException {
        return this.end('a'']');
    }

    
End an object. This method most be called to balance calls to object.

Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If incorrectly nested.
    public JSONWriter endObject() throws JSONException {
        return this.end('k''}');
    }

    
Append a key. The key will be associated with the next value. In an object, every value must be preceded by a key.

Parameters:
s A key string.
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If the key is out of place. For example, keys do not belong in arrays or if the key is null.
    public JSONWriter key(String sthrows JSONException {
        if (s == null) {
            throw new JSONException("Null key.");
        }
        if (this. == 'k') {
            try {
                [ - 1].putOnce(s.);
                if (this.) {
                    this..write(',');
                }
                this..write(JSONObject.quote(s));
                this..write(':');
                this. = false;
                this. = 'o';
                return this;
            } catch (IOException e) {
                throw new JSONException(e);
            }
        }
        throw new JSONException("Misplaced key.");
    }


    
Begin appending a new object. All keys and values until the balancing endObject will be appended to this object. The endObject method must be called to mark the object's end.

Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If the nesting is too deep, or if the object is started in the wrong place (for example as a key or after the end of the outermost array or object).
    public JSONWriter object() throws JSONException {
        if (this. == 'i') {
            this. = 'o';
        }
        if (this. == 'o' || this. == 'a') {
            this.append("{");
            this.push(new JSONObject());
            this. = false;
            return this;
        }
        throw new JSONException("Misplaced object.");
    }


    
Pop an array or object scope.

Parameters:
c The scope to close.
Throws:
JSONException If nesting is wrong.
    private void pop(char cthrows JSONException {
        if (this. <= 0) {
            throw new JSONException("Nesting error.");
        }
        char m = this.[this. - 1] == null ? 'a' : 'k';
        if (m != c) {
            throw new JSONException("Nesting error.");
        }
        this. -= 1;
        this. = this. == 0 ? 'd' : this.[this. - 1] == null ? 'a' : 'k';
    }

    
Push an array or object scope.

Parameters:
c The scope to open.
Throws:
JSONException If nesting is too deep.
    private void push(JSONObject jothrows JSONException {
        if (this. >= ) {
            throw new JSONException("Nesting too deep.");
        }
        this.[this.] = jo;
        this. = jo == null ? 'a' : 'k';
        this. += 1;
    }


    
Append either the value true or the value false.

Parameters:
b A boolean.
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException
    public JSONWriter value(boolean bthrows JSONException {
        return this.append(b ? "true" : "false");
    }

    
Append a double value.

Parameters:
d A double.
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If the number is not finite.
    public JSONWriter value(double dthrows JSONException {
        return this.value(new Double(d));
    }

    
Append a long value.

Parameters:
l A long.
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException
    public JSONWriter value(long lthrows JSONException {
        return this.value(Long.valueOf(l));
    }

    
Appends a date value, as epoch seconds.

Parameters:
date The date to append.
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException
    public JSONWriter value(Date datethrows JSONException {
        // See https://forums.aws.amazon.com/thread.jspa?threadID=158756
        return this.append(DateUtils.formatServiceSpecificDate(date));
    }

    
Appends a ByteBuffer value.

Parameters:
b A ByteBuffer.
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException
    public JSONWriter value(ByteBuffer bthrows JSONException {
        b.mark();
        byte[] bytes = new byte[b.remaining()];
        b.get(bytes, 0, bytes.length);
        b.reset();
        return this.value(BinaryUtils.toBase64(bytes));
    }

    
Append an object value.

Parameters:
o The object to append. It can be null, or a Boolean, Number, String, JSONObject, or JSONArray, or an object with a toJSONString() method.
Returns:
this
Throws:
JSONException If the value is out of sequence.
    public JSONWriter value(Object othrows JSONException {
        return this.append(JSONObject.valueToString(o));
    }
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