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this: The intrinsic lock of the object in whose class the field is defined.
class-name.this: For inner classes, it may be necessary to disambiguate 'this'; the class-name.this designation allows you to specify which 'this' reference is intended
itself: For reference fields only; the object to which the field refers.
field-name: The lock object is referenced by the (instance or static) field specified by field-name.
class-name.field-name: The lock object is reference by the static field specified by class-name.field-name.
method-name(): The lock object is returned by calling the named nil-ary method.
class-name.class: The Class object for the specified class should be used as the lock object.
Based on code developed by Brian Goetz and Tim Peierls and concepts published in 'Java Concurrency in Practice' by Brian Goetz, Tim Peierls, Joshua Bloch, Joseph Bowbeer, David Holmes and Doug Lea.