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ASM: a very small and fast Java bytecode manipulation framework Copyright (c) 2000-2011 INRIA, France Telecom All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. Neither the name of the copyright holders nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 
 package com.sleepycat.asm;

A label represents a position in the bytecode of a method. Labels are used for jump, goto, and switch instructions, and for try catch blocks. A label designates the instruction that is just after. Note however that there can be other elements between a label and the instruction it designates (such as other labels, stack map frames, line numbers, etc.).

Author(s):
Eric Bruneton
 
 public class Label {

    
Indicates if this label is only used for debug attributes. Such a label is not the start of a basic block, the target of a jump instruction, or an exception handler. It can be safely ignored in control flow graph analysis algorithms (for optimization purposes).
 
     static final int DEBUG = 1;

    
Indicates if the position of this label is known.
 
     static final int RESOLVED = 2;

    
Indicates if this label has been updated, after instruction resizing.
 
     static final int RESIZED = 4;

    
Indicates if this basic block has been pushed in the basic block stack. See visitMaxs.
 
     static final int PUSHED = 8;

    
Indicates if this label is the target of a jump instruction, or the start of an exception handler.
 
     static final int TARGET = 16;

    
Indicates if a stack map frame must be stored for this label.
 
     static final int STORE = 32;

    
Indicates if this label corresponds to a reachable basic block.
 
     static final int REACHABLE = 64;

    
Indicates if this basic block ends with a JSR instruction.
 
     static final int JSR = 128;

    
Indicates if this basic block ends with a RET instruction.
 
     static final int RET = 256;

    
Indicates if this basic block is the start of a subroutine.
 
     static final int SUBROUTINE = 512;

    
Indicates if this subroutine basic block has been visited by a visitSubroutine(null, ...) call.
    static final int VISITED = 1024;

    
Indicates if this subroutine basic block has been visited by a visitSubroutine(!null, ...) call.
    static final int VISITED2 = 2048;

    
Field used to associate user information to a label. Warning: this field is used by the ASM tree package. In order to use it with the ASM tree package you must override the org.objectweb.asm.tree.MethodNode method.
    public Object info;

    
Flags that indicate the status of this label.

    int status;

    
The line number corresponding to this label, if known.
    int line;

    
The position of this label in the code, if known.
    int position;

    
Number of forward references to this label, times two.
    private int referenceCount;

    
Informations about forward references. Each forward reference is described by two consecutive integers in this array: the first one is the position of the first byte of the bytecode instruction that contains the forward reference, while the second is the position of the first byte of the forward reference itself. In fact the sign of the first integer indicates if this reference uses 2 or 4 bytes, and its absolute value gives the position of the bytecode instruction. This array is also used as a bitset to store the subroutines to which a basic block belongs. This information is needed in MethodWriter.visitMaxs, after all forward references have been resolved. Hence the same array can be used for both purposes without problems.
    private int[] srcAndRefPositions;
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    /*
     * Fields for the control flow and data flow graph analysis algorithms (used
     * to compute the maximum stack size or the stack map frames). A control
     * flow graph contains one node per "basic block", and one edge per "jump"
     * from one basic block to another. Each node (i.e., each basic block) is
     * represented by the Label object that corresponds to the first instruction
     * of this basic block. Each node also stores the list of its successors in
     * the graph, as a linked list of Edge objects.
     *
     * The control flow analysis algorithms used to compute the maximum stack
     * size or the stack map frames are similar and use two steps. The first
     * step, during the visit of each instruction, builds information about the
     * state of the local variables and the operand stack at the end of each
     * basic block, called the "output frame", <i>relatively</i> to the frame
     * state at the beginning of the basic block, which is called the "input
     * frame", and which is <i>unknown</i> during this step. The second step,
     * in {@link MethodWriter#visitMaxs}, is a fix point algorithm that
     * computes information about the input frame of each basic block, from the
     * input state of the first basic block (known from the method signature),
     * and by the using the previously computed relative output frames.
     *
     * The algorithm used to compute the maximum stack size only computes the
     * relative output and absolute input stack heights, while the algorithm
     * used to compute stack map frames computes relative output frames and
     * absolute input frames.
     */

    
Start of the output stack relatively to the input stack. The exact semantics of this field depends on the algorithm that is used. When only the maximum stack size is computed, this field is the number of elements in the input stack. When the stack map frames are completely computed, this field is the offset of the first output stack element relatively to the top of the input stack. This offset is always negative or null. A null offset means that the output stack must be appended to the input stack. A -n offset means that the first n output stack elements must replace the top n input stack elements, and that the other elements must be appended to the input stack.
    int inputStackTop;

    
Maximum height reached by the output stack, relatively to the top of the input stack. This maximum is always positive or null.
    int outputStackMax;

    
Information about the input and output stack map frames of this basic block. This field is only used when ClassWriter.COMPUTE_FRAMES option is used.
    Frame frame;

    
The successor of this label, in the order they are visited. This linked list does not include labels used for debug info only. If ClassWriter.COMPUTE_FRAMES option is used then, in addition, it does not contain successive labels that denote the same bytecode position (in this case only the first label appears in this list).
    Label successor;

    
The successors of this node in the control flow graph. These successors are stored in a linked list of Edge objects, linked to each other by their Edge.next field.
    Edge successors;

    
The next basic block in the basic block stack. This stack is used in the main loop of the fix point algorithm used in the second step of the control flow analysis algorithms. It is also used in visitSubroutine(com.sleepycat.asm.Label,long,int) to avoid using a recursive method.

    Label next;
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // Constructor
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    
Constructs a new label.
    public Label() {
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // Methods to compute offsets and to manage forward references
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    
Returns the offset corresponding to this label. This offset is computed from the start of the method's bytecode. This method is intended for Attribute sub classes, and is normally not needed by class generators or adapters.

Returns:
the offset corresponding to this label.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalStateException if this label is not resolved yet.
    public int getOffset() {
        if (( & ) == 0) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Label offset position has not been resolved yet");
        }
        return ;
    }

    
Puts a reference to this label in the bytecode of a method. If the position of the label is known, the offset is computed and written directly. Otherwise, a null offset is written and a new forward reference is declared for this label.

Parameters:
owner the code writer that calls this method.
out the bytecode of the method.
source the position of first byte of the bytecode instruction that contains this label.
wideOffset true if the reference must be stored in 4 bytes, or false if it must be stored with 2 bytes.
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if this label has not been created by the given code writer.
    void put(
        final MethodWriter owner,
        final ByteVector out,
        final int source,
        final boolean wideOffset)
    {
        if (( & ) == 0) {
            if (wideOffset) {
                addReference(-1 - sourceout.length);
                out.putInt(-1);
            } else {
                addReference(sourceout.length);
                out.putShort(-1);
            }
        } else {
            if (wideOffset) {
                out.putInt( - source);
            } else {
                out.putShort( - source);
            }
        }
    }

    
Adds a forward reference to this label. This method must be called only for a true forward reference, i.e. only if this label is not resolved yet. For backward references, the offset of the reference can be, and must be, computed and stored directly.

Parameters:
sourcePosition the position of the referencing instruction. This position will be used to compute the offset of this forward reference.
referencePosition the position where the offset for this forward reference must be stored.
    private void addReference(
        final int sourcePosition,
        final int referencePosition)
    {
        if ( == null) {
             = new int[6];
        }
        if ( >= .) {
            int[] a = new int[. + 6];
            System.arraycopy(,
                    0,
                    a,
                    0,
                    .);
             = a;
        }
        [++] = sourcePosition;
        [++] = referencePosition;
    }

    
Resolves all forward references to this label. This method must be called when this label is added to the bytecode of the method, i.e. when its position becomes known. This method fills in the blanks that where left in the bytecode by each forward reference previously added to this label.

Parameters:
owner the code writer that calls this method.
position the position of this label in the bytecode.
data the bytecode of the method.
Returns:
true if a blank that was left for this label was to small to store the offset. In such a case the corresponding jump instruction is replaced with a pseudo instruction (using unused opcodes) using an unsigned two bytes offset. These pseudo instructions will need to be replaced with true instructions with wider offsets (4 bytes instead of 2). This is done in MethodWriter.resizeInstructions().
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if this label has already been resolved, or if it has not been created by the given code writer.
    boolean resolve(
        final MethodWriter owner,
        final int position,
        final byte[] data)
    {
        boolean needUpdate = false;
        this. |= ;
        this. = position;
        int i = 0;
        while (i < ) {
            int source = [i++];
            int reference = [i++];
            int offset;
            if (source >= 0) {
                offset = position - source;
                if (offset < . || offset > .) {
                    /*
                     * changes the opcode of the jump instruction, in order to
                     * be able to find it later (see resizeInstructions in
                     * MethodWriter). These temporary opcodes are similar to
                     * jump instruction opcodes, except that the 2 bytes offset
                     * is unsigned (and can therefore represent values from 0 to
                     * 65535, which is sufficient since the size of a method is
                     * limited to 65535 bytes).
                     */
                    int opcode = data[reference - 1] & 0xFF;
                    if (opcode <= .) {
                        // changes IFEQ ... JSR to opcodes 202 to 217
                        data[reference - 1] = (byte) (opcode + 49);
                    } else {
                        // changes IFNULL and IFNONNULL to opcodes 218 and 219
                        data[reference - 1] = (byte) (opcode + 20);
                    }
                    needUpdate = true;
                }
                data[reference++] = (byte) (offset >>> 8);
                data[reference] = (byteoffset;
            } else {
                offset = position + source + 1;
                data[reference++] = (byte) (offset >>> 24);
                data[reference++] = (byte) (offset >>> 16);
                data[reference++] = (byte) (offset >>> 8);
                data[reference] = (byteoffset;
            }
        }
        return needUpdate;
    }

    
Returns the first label of the series to which this label belongs. For an isolated label or for the first label in a series of successive labels, this method returns the label itself. For other labels it returns the first label of the series.

Returns:
the first label of the series to which this label belongs.
    Label getFirst() {
        return !. ||  == null ? this : .;
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // Methods related to subroutines
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    
Returns true is this basic block belongs to the given subroutine.

Parameters:
id a subroutine id.
Returns:
true is this basic block belongs to the given subroutine.
    boolean inSubroutine(final long id) {
        if (( & .) != 0) {
            return ([(int) (id >>> 32)] & (intid) != 0;
        }
        return false;
    }

    
Returns true if this basic block and the given one belong to a common subroutine.

Parameters:
block another basic block.
Returns:
true if this basic block and the given one belong to a common subroutine.
    boolean inSameSubroutine(final Label block) {
        if (( & ) == 0 || (block.status & ) == 0) {
            return false;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < .; ++i) {
            if (([i] & block.srcAndRefPositions[i]) != 0) {
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    
Marks this basic block as belonging to the given subroutine.

Parameters:
id a subroutine id.
nbSubroutines the total number of subroutines in the method.
    void addToSubroutine(final long idfinal int nbSubroutines) {
        if (( & ) == 0) {
             |= ;
             = new int[(nbSubroutines - 1) / 32 + 1];
        }
        [(int) (id >>> 32)] |= (intid;
    }

    
Finds the basic blocks that belong to a given subroutine, and marks these blocks as belonging to this subroutine. This method follows the control flow graph to find all the blocks that are reachable from the current block WITHOUT following any JSR target.

Parameters:
JSR a JSR block that jumps to this subroutine. If this JSR is not null it is added to the successor of the RET blocks found in the subroutine.
id the id of this subroutine.
nbSubroutines the total number of subroutines in the method.
    void visitSubroutine(final Label JSRfinal long idfinal int nbSubroutines)
    {
        // user managed stack of labels, to avoid using a recursive method
        // (recursivity can lead to stack overflow with very large methods)
        Label stack = this;
        while (stack != null) {
            // removes a label l from the stack
            Label l = stack;
            stack = l.next;
            l.next = null;
            if (JSR != null) {
                if ((l.status & ) != 0) {
                    continue;
                }
                l.status |= ;
                // adds JSR to the successors of l, if it is a RET block
                if ((l.status & ) != 0) {
                    if (!l.inSameSubroutine(JSR)) {
                        Edge e = new Edge();
                        e.info = l.inputStackTop;
                        e.successor = JSR.successors.successor;
                        e.next = l.successors;
                        l.successors = e;
                    }
                }
            } else {
                // if the l block already belongs to subroutine 'id', continue
                if (l.inSubroutine(id)) {
                    continue;
                }
                // marks the l block as belonging to subroutine 'id'
                l.addToSubroutine(idnbSubroutines);
            }
            // pushes each successor of l on the stack, except JSR targets
            Edge e = l.successors;
            while (e != null) {
                // if the l block is a JSR block, then 'l.successors.next' leads
                // to the JSR target (see {@link #visitJumpInsn}) and must
                // therefore not be followed
                if ((l.status & .) == 0 || e != l.successors.next) {
                    // pushes e.successor on the stack if it not already added
                    if (e.successor.next == null) {
                        e.successor.next = stack;
                        stack = e.successor;
                    }
                }
                e = e.next;
            }
        }
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // Overriden Object methods
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    
Returns a string representation of this label.

Returns:
a string representation of this label.
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "L" + System.identityHashCode(this);
    }
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