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  /*-
   * See the file LICENSE for redistribution information.
   *
   * Copyright (c) 2002, 2013 Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.
   *
   */
  
  package com.sleepycat.persist.model;
  
 import static java.lang.annotation.ElementType.FIELD;
 import static java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME;
 
 
Indicates the primary key field of an entity class. The value of the primary key field is the unique identifier for the entity in a com.sleepycat.persist.PrimaryIndex.

PrimaryKey may appear on at most one declared field per class.

Primary key values may be automatically assigned as sequential integers using a sequence(). In this case the type of the key field is restricted to a simple integer type.

A primary key field may not be null, unless it is being assigned from a sequence.

Key Field Types

The type of a key field must either be one of the following:

  • Any of the href="Entity.html.simpleTypes">simple types.
  • An enum type.
  • A composite key class containing one or more simple type or enum fields.

Array types are not allowed.

When using a composite key class, each field of the composite key class must be annotated with KeyField to identify the storage order and default sort order. See KeyField for an example and more information on composite keys.

Key Sort Order

Key field types, being simple types, have a well defined and reasonable default sort order, described below. This sort order is based on a storage encoding that allows a fast byte-by-byte comparison.

  • All simple types except for String are encoded so that they are sorted as expected, that is, as if the java.lang.Comparable.compareTo(java.lang.Object) method of their class (or, for primitives, their wrapper class) is called.

  • Strings are encoded as UTF-8 byte arrays. Zero (0x0000) character values are UTF encoded as non-zero values, and therefore embedded zeros in the string are supported. The sequence {0xC0,0x80} is used to encode a zero character. This UTF encoding is the same one used by native Java UTF libraries. However, this encoding of zero does impact the lexicographical ordering, and zeros will not be sorted first (the natural order) or last. For all character values other than zero, the default UTF byte ordering is the same as the Unicode lexicographical character ordering.

When using a composite key class with more than one field, the sorting order among fields is determined by the KeyField annotations. To override the default sort order, you can use a composite key class that implements java.lang.Comparable. This allows overriding the sort order and is therefore useful even when there is only one key field in the composite key class. See href="KeyField.html.comparable">Custom Sort Order for more information on sorting of composite keys.

Inherited Primary Key

If it does not appear on a declared field in the entity class, PrimaryKey must appear on a field of an entity superclass. In the following example, the primary key on the base class is used:

 @Persistent
 class BaseClass {
     @PrimaryKey
     long id;
     ...
 }
 @Entity
 class Employee extends BaseClass {
     // inherits id primary key
     ...
 }

If more than one class with PrimaryKey is present in a class hierarchy, the key in the most derived class is used. In this case, primary key fields in superclasses are "shadowed" and are not persistent. In the following example, the primary key in the base class is not used and is not persistent:

 @Persistent
 class BaseClass {
     @PrimaryKey
     long id;
     ...
 }
 @Entity
 class Employee extends BaseClass {
     // overrides id primary key
     @PrimaryKey
     String uuid;
     ...
 }

Note that a PrimaryKey is not allowed on entity subclasses. The following is illegal and will cause an IllegalArgumentException when trying to store an Employee instance:

 @Entity
 class Person {
     @PrimaryKey
     long id;
     ...
 }
 @Persistent
 class Employee extends Person {
     @PrimaryKey
     String uuid;
     ...
 }

Author(s):
Mark Hayes
public @interface PrimaryKey {

    
The name of a sequence from which to assign primary key values automatically. If a non-empty string is specified, sequential integers will be assigned from the named sequence.

A single sequence may be used for more than one entity class by specifying the same sequence name for each PrimaryKey. For each named sequence, a com.sleepycat.je.Sequence will be used to assign key values. For more information on configuring sequences, see EntityStore.setSequenceConfig.

To use a sequence, the type of the key field must be a primitive integer type (byte, short, int or long) or the primitive wrapper class for one of these types. A composite key class may also be used to override sort order, but it may contain only a single key field, and this field must have one of the types previously mentioned.

When an entity with a primary key sequence is stored using one of the put methods in the PrimaryIndex, a new key will be assigned if the primary key field in the entity instance is null (for a reference type) or zero (for a primitive integer type). Specifying zero for a primitive integer key field is allowed because the initial value of the sequence is one (not zero) by default. If the sequence configuration is changed such that zero is part of the sequence, then the field type must be a primitive wrapper class and the field value must be null to cause a new key to be assigned.

When one of the put methods in the PrimaryIndex is called and a new key is assigned, the assigned value is returned to the caller via the key field of the entity object that is passed as a parameter.

    String sequence() default "";
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