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  /*
   *  Copyright 2001-2005 Stephen Colebourne
   *
   *  Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
   *  you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
   *  You may obtain a copy of the License at
   *
   *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
   *
  *  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
  *  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
  *  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
  *  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  *  limitations under the License.
  */
 package org.joda.time;
 
Chronology provides access to the individual date time fields for a chronological calendar system.

Various chronologies are supported by subclasses including ISO and GregorianJulian. To construct a Chronology you should use the factory methods on the chronology subclass in the chrono package.

For example, to obtain the current time in the coptic calendar system:

 DateTime dt = new DateTime(CopticChronology.getInstance());
 

The provided chronology implementations are:

  • ISO - Based on the ISO8601 standard and suitable for use after about 1600
  • GJ - Historically accurate calendar with Julian followed by Gregorian
  • Gregorian - The Gregorian calendar system used for all time (proleptic)
  • Julian - The Julian calendar system used for all time (proleptic)
  • Buddhist - The Buddhist calendar system which is an offset in years from GJ
  • Coptic - The Coptic calendar system which defines 30 day months
  • Ethiopic - The Ethiopic calendar system which defines 30 day months
Hopefully future releases will contain more chronologies.

This class defines a number of fields with names from the ISO8601 standard. It does not 'strongly' define these fields however, thus implementations are free to interpret the field names as they wish. For example, a week could be defined as 10 days and a month as 40 days in a special WeirdChronology implementation. Clearly the GJ and ISO implementations provided use the field names as you would expect.

 
 public abstract class Chronology {

    
Gets an instance of the ISOChronology in the default zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.ISOChronology defines all fields in line with the ISO8601 standard. This chronology is the default, and is suitable for all normal datetime processing. It is unsuitable for historical datetimes before October 15, 1582 as it applies the modern Gregorian calendar rules before that date.

Deprecated:
Use ISOChronology.getInstance()
Returns:
the ISO chronology
 
     public static Chronology getISO() {
         return ISOChronology.getInstance();
     }

    
Gets an instance of the ISOChronology in the UTC zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.ISOChronology defines all fields in line with the ISO8601 standard. This chronology is the default, and is suitable for all normal datetime processing. It is unsuitable for historical datetimes before October 15, 1582 as it applies the modern Gregorian calendar rules before that date.

Deprecated:
Use ISOChronology.getInstanceUTC()
Returns:
the ISO chronology
 
     public static Chronology getISOUTC() {
         return ISOChronology.getInstanceUTC();
     }

    
Gets an instance of the ISOChronology in the specified zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.ISOChronology defines all fields in line with the ISO8601 standard. This chronology is the default, and is suitable for all normal datetime processing. It is unsuitable for historical datetimes before October 15, 1582 as it applies the modern Gregorian calendar rules before that date.

Deprecated:
Use ISOChronology.getInstance(zone)
Parameters:
zone the zone to use, null means default zone
Returns:
the ISO chronology
    public static Chronology getISO(DateTimeZone zone) {
        return ISOChronology.getInstance(zone);
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Gets an instance of the GJChronology in the default zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.GJChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. This chronology is intended to be used as a replacement for GregorianCalendar. The Gregorian calendar system is used after October 15, 1582, while the Julian calendar system is used before.

Unlike GregorianCalendar, this chronology returns a year of -1 for 1 BCE, -2 for 2 BCE and so on. Thus there is no year zero.

This method uses the standard Julian to Gregorian cutover date of October 15th 1582. If you require a cutover on a different date, then use the factories on GJChronology itself.

When dealing solely with dates in the modern era, from 1600 onwards, we recommend using ISOChronology, which is the default.

Deprecated:
Use GJChronology.getInstance()
Returns:
the GJ chronology
    public static Chronology getGJ() {
        return GJChronology.getInstance();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the GJChronology in the UTC zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.GJChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. This chronology is intended to be used as a replacement for GregorianCalendar. The Gregorian calendar system is used after October 15, 1582, while the Julian calendar system is used before.

Unlike GregorianCalendar, this chronology returns a year of -1 for 1 BCE, -2 for 2 BCE and so on. Thus there is no year zero.

This method uses the standard Julian to Gregorian cutover date of October 15th 1582. If you require a cutover on a different date, then use the factories on GJChronology itself.

When dealing solely with dates in the modern era, from 1600 onwards, we recommend using ISOChronology, which is the default.

Deprecated:
Use GJChronology.getInstanceUTC()
Returns:
the GJ chronology
    public static Chronology getGJUTC() {
        return GJChronology.getInstanceUTC();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the GJChronology in the specified zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.GJChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. This chronology is intended to be used as a replacement for GregorianCalendar. The Gregorian calendar system is used after October 15, 1582, while the Julian calendar system is used before.

Unlike GregorianCalendar, this chronology returns a year of -1 for 1 BCE, -2 for 2 BCE and so on. Thus there is no year zero.

This method uses the standard Julian to Gregorian cutover date of October 15th 1582. If you require a cutover on a different date, then use the factories on GJChronology itself.

When dealing solely with dates in the modern era, from 1600 onwards, we recommend using ISOChronology, which is the default.

Deprecated:
Use GJChronology.getInstance(zone)
Parameters:
zone the zone to use, null means default zone
Returns:
the GJ chronology
    public static Chronology getGJ(DateTimeZone zone) {
        return GJChronology.getInstance(zone);
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Gets an instance of the GregorianChronology in the default zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.GregorianChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. It uses the Gregorian calendar rules for all time (proleptic) thus it is NOT a replacement for GregorianCalendar. For that purpose, you should use getGJ().

The Gregorian calendar system defines a leap year every four years, except that every 100 years is not leap, but every 400 is leap.

Technically, this chronology is almost identical to the ISO chronology, thus we recommend using ISOChronology instead, which is the default.

Deprecated:
Use GregorianChronology.getInstance()
Returns:
the Gregorian chronology
    public static Chronology getGregorian() {
        return GregorianChronology.getInstance();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the GregorianChronology in the UTC zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.GregorianChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. It uses the Gregorian calendar rules for all time (proleptic) thus it is NOT a replacement for GregorianCalendar. For that purpose, you should use getGJ().

The Gregorian calendar system defines a leap year every four years, except that every 100 years is not leap, but every 400 is leap.

Technically, this chronology is almost identical to the ISO chronology, thus we recommend using ISOChronology instead, which is the default.

Deprecated:
Use GregorianChronology.getInstanceUTC()
Returns:
the Gregorian chronology
    public static Chronology getGregorianUTC() {
        return GregorianChronology.getInstanceUTC();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the GregorianChronology in the specified zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.GregorianChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. It uses the Gregorian calendar rules for all time (proleptic) thus it is NOT a replacement for GregorianCalendar. For that purpose, you should use getGJ().

The Gregorian calendar system defines a leap year every four years, except that every 100 years is not leap, but every 400 is leap.

Technically, this chronology is almost identical to the ISO chronology, thus we recommend using ISOChronology instead, which is the default.

Deprecated:
Use GregorianChronology.getInstance(zone)
Parameters:
zone the zone to use, null means default zone
Returns:
the Gregorian chronology
    public static Chronology getGregorian(DateTimeZone zone) {
        return GregorianChronology.getInstance(zone);
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Gets an instance of the JulianChronology in the default zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.JulianChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. It uses the Julian calendar rules for all time (proleptic). The Julian calendar system defines a leap year every four years.

Deprecated:
Use JulianChronology.getInstance()
Returns:
the Julian chronology
    public static Chronology getJulian() {
        return JulianChronology.getInstance();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the JulianChronology in the UTC zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.JulianChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. It uses the Julian calendar rules for all time (proleptic). The Julian calendar system defines a leap year every four years.

Deprecated:
Use JulianChronology.getInstanceUTC()
Returns:
the Julian chronology
    public static Chronology getJulianUTC() {
        return JulianChronology.getInstanceUTC();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the JulianChronology in the specified zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.JulianChronology defines all fields using standard meanings. It uses the Julian calendar rules for all time (proleptic). The Julian calendar system defines a leap year every four years.

Deprecated:
Use JulianChronology.getInstance(zone)
Parameters:
zone the zone to use, null means default zone
Returns:
the Julian chronology
    public static Chronology getJulian(DateTimeZone zone) {
        return JulianChronology.getInstance(zone);
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Gets an instance of the BuddhistChronology in the default zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.BuddhistChronology defines all fields using standard meanings, however the year is offset by 543. The chronology cannot be used before year 1 in the Buddhist calendar.

Deprecated:
Use BuddhistChronology.getInstance()
Returns:
the Buddhist chronology
    public static Chronology getBuddhist() {
        return BuddhistChronology.getInstance();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the BuddhistChronology in the UTC zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.BuddhistChronology defines all fields using standard meanings, however the year is offset by 543. The chronology cannot be used before year 1 in the Buddhist calendar.

Deprecated:
Use BuddhistChronology.getInstanceUTC()
Returns:
the Buddhist chronology
    public static Chronology getBuddhistUTC() {
        return BuddhistChronology.getInstanceUTC();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the BuddhistChronology in the specified zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.BuddhistChronology defines all fields using standard meanings, however the year is offset by 543. The chronology cannot be used before year 1 in the Buddhist calendar.

Deprecated:
Use BuddhistChronology.getInstance(zone)
Parameters:
zone the zone to use, null means default zone
Returns:
the Buddhist chronology
    public static Chronology getBuddhist(DateTimeZone zone) {
        return BuddhistChronology.getInstance(zone);
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Gets an instance of the CopticChronology in the default zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.CopticChronology defines fields sensibly for the Coptic calendar system. The Coptic calendar system defines every fourth year as leap. The year is broken down into 12 months, each 30 days in length. An extra period at the end of the year is either 5 or 6 days in length and is returned as a 13th month. Year 1 in the Coptic calendar began on August 29, 284 CE (Julian). The chronology cannot be used before the first Coptic year.

Deprecated:
Use CopticChronology.getInstance()
Returns:
the Coptic chronology
    public static Chronology getCoptic() {
        return CopticChronology.getInstance();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the CopticChronology in the UTC zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.CopticChronology defines fields sensibly for the Coptic calendar system. The Coptic calendar system defines every fourth year as leap. The year is broken down into 12 months, each 30 days in length. An extra period at the end of the year is either 5 or 6 days in length and is returned as a 13th month. Year 1 in the Coptic calendar began on August 29, 284 CE (Julian). The chronology cannot be used before the first Coptic year.

Deprecated:
Use CopticChronology.getInstanceUTC()
Returns:
the Coptic chronology
    public static Chronology getCopticUTC() {
        return CopticChronology.getInstanceUTC();
    }

    
Gets an instance of the CopticChronology in the specified zone.

org.joda.time.chrono.CopticChronology defines fields sensibly for the Coptic calendar system. The Coptic calendar system defines every fourth year as leap. The year is broken down into 12 months, each 30 days in length. An extra period at the end of the year is either 5 or 6 days in length and is returned as a 13th month. Year 1 in the Coptic calendar began on August 29, 284 CE (Julian). The chronology cannot be used before the first Coptic year.

Deprecated:
Use CopticChronology.getInstance(zone)
Parameters:
zone the zone to use, null means default zone
Returns:
the Coptic chronology
    public static Chronology getCoptic(DateTimeZone zone) {
        return CopticChronology.getInstance(zone);
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Returns the DateTimeZone that this Chronology operates in, or null if unspecified.

Returns:
the DateTimeZone, null if unspecified
    public abstract DateTimeZone getZone();

    
Returns an instance of this Chronology that operates in the UTC time zone. Chronologies that do not operate in a time zone or are already UTC must return themself.

Returns:
a version of this chronology that ignores time zones
    public abstract Chronology withUTC();
    
    
Returns an instance of this Chronology that operates in any time zone.

Parameters:
zone to use, or default if null
Returns:
a version of this chronology with a specific time zone
See also:
org.joda.time.chrono.ZonedChronology
    public abstract Chronology withZone(DateTimeZone zone);

    
Returns a datetime millisecond instant, formed from the given year, month, day, and millisecond values. The set of given values must refer to a valid datetime, or else an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

The default implementation calls upon separate DateTimeFields to determine the result. Subclasses are encouraged to provide a more efficient implementation.

Parameters:
year year to use
monthOfYear month to use
dayOfMonth day of month to use
millisOfDay millisecond to use
Returns:
millisecond instant from 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if the values are invalid
    public abstract long getDateTimeMillis(int yearint monthOfYearint dayOfMonthint millisOfDay);

    
Returns a datetime millisecond instant, formed from the given year, month, day, hour, minute, second, and millisecond values. The set of given values must refer to a valid datetime, or else an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

The default implementation calls upon separate DateTimeFields to determine the result. Subclasses are encouraged to provide a more efficient implementation.

Parameters:
year year to use
monthOfYear month to use
dayOfMonth day of month to use
hourOfDay hour to use
minuteOfHour minute to use
secondOfMinute second to use
millisOfSecond millisecond to use
Returns:
millisecond instant from 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if the values are invalid
    public abstract long getDateTimeMillis(int yearint monthOfYearint dayOfMonth,
                           int hourOfDayint minuteOfHour,
                           int secondOfMinuteint millisOfSecond);

    
Returns a datetime millisecond instant, from from the given instant, hour, minute, second, and millisecond values. The set of given values must refer to a valid datetime, or else an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

The default implementation calls upon separate DateTimeFields to determine the result. Subclasses are encouraged to provide a more efficient implementation.

Parameters:
instant instant to start from
hourOfDay hour to use
minuteOfHour minute to use
secondOfMinute second to use
millisOfSecond millisecond to use
Returns:
millisecond instant from 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if the values are invalid
    public abstract long getDateTimeMillis(long instant,
                           int hourOfDayint minuteOfHour,
                           int secondOfMinuteint millisOfSecond);
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Validates whether the values are valid for the fields of a partial instant.

Parameters:
partial the partial instant to validate
values the values to validate, not null, match fields in partial
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if the instant is invalid
    public abstract void validate(ReadablePartial partialint[] values);

    
Gets the values of a partial from an instant.

Parameters:
partial the partial instant to use
instant the instant to query
Returns:
the values of this partial extracted from the instant
    public abstract int[] get(ReadablePartial partiallong instant);

    
Sets the partial into the instant.

Parameters:
partial the partial instant to use
instant the instant to update
Returns:
the updated instant
    public abstract long set(ReadablePartial partiallong instant);
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Gets the values of a period from an interval.

Parameters:
period the period instant to use
startInstant the start instant of an interval to query
endInstant the start instant of an interval to query
Returns:
the values of the period extracted from the interval
    public abstract int[] get(ReadablePeriod periodlong startInstantlong endInstant);

    
Gets the values of a period from an interval.

Parameters:
period the period instant to use
duration the duration to query
Returns:
the values of the period extracted from the duration
    public abstract int[] get(ReadablePeriod periodlong duration);

    
Adds the period to the instant, specifying the number of times to add.

Parameters:
period the period to add, null means add nothing
instant the instant to add to
scalar the number of times to add
Returns:
the updated instant
    public abstract long add(ReadablePeriod periodlong instantint scalar);
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Adds the duration to the instant, specifying the number of times to add.

Parameters:
instant the instant to add to
duration the duration to add
scalar the number of times to add
Returns:
the updated instant
    public abstract long add(long instantlong durationint scalar);
    // Millis
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the millis duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField millis();

    
Get the millis of second field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField millisOfSecond();

    
Get the millis of day field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField millisOfDay();
    // Second
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the seconds duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField seconds();

    
Get the second of minute field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField secondOfMinute();

    
Get the second of day field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField secondOfDay();
    // Minute
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the minutes duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField minutes();

    
Get the minute of hour field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField minuteOfHour();

    
Get the minute of day field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField minuteOfDay();
    // Hour
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the hours duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField hours();

    
Get the hour of day (0-23) field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField hourOfDay();

    
Get the hour of day (offset to 1-24) field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField clockhourOfDay();
    // Halfday
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the halfdays duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField halfdays();

    
Get the hour of am/pm (0-11) field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField hourOfHalfday();

    
Get the hour of am/pm (offset to 1-12) field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField clockhourOfHalfday();

    
Get the AM(0) PM(1) field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField halfdayOfDay();
    // Day
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the days duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField days();

    
Get the day of week field for this chronology.

DayOfWeek values are defined in DateTimeConstants. They use the ISO definitions, where 1 is Monday and 7 is Sunday.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField dayOfWeek();

    
Get the day of month field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField dayOfMonth();

    
Get the day of year field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField dayOfYear();
    // Week
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the weeks duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField weeks();

    
Get the week of a week based year field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField weekOfWeekyear();
    // Weekyear
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the weekyears duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField weekyears();

    
Get the year of a week based year field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField weekyear();

    
Get the year of a week based year in a century field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract  DateTimeField weekyearOfCentury();
    // Month
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the months duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField months();

    
Get the month of year field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField monthOfYear();
    // Year
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the years duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField years();

    
Get the year field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField year();

    
Get the year of era field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField yearOfEra();

    
Get the year of century field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField yearOfCentury();
    // Century
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the centuries duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField centuries();

    
Get the century of era field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField centuryOfEra();
    // Era
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Get the eras duration field for this chronology.

Returns:
DurationField or UnsupportedDurationField if unsupported
    public abstract DurationField eras();

    
Get the era field for this chronology.

Returns:
DateTimeField or UnsupportedDateTimeField if unsupported
    public abstract DateTimeField era();
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
Gets a debugging toString.

Returns:
a debugging string
    public abstract String toString();
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