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  * Copyright (C) 2009 The Guava Authors
  * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
  * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
  * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
Escaper instances suitable for strings to be included in HTML attribute values and most elements' text contents. When possible, avoid manual escaping by using templating systems and high-level APIs that provide autoescaping.

HTML escaping is particularly tricky: For example, some elements' text contents must not be HTML escaped. As a result, it is impossible to escape an HTML document correctly without domain-specific knowledge beyond what HtmlEscapers provides. We strongly encourage the use of HTML templating systems.

Sven Mawson
David Beaumont
public final class HtmlEscapers {
  private HtmlEscapers() {}
  // For each xxxEscaper() method, please add links to external reference pages
  // that are considered authoritative for the behavior of that escaper.

Returns an instance that escapes HTML metacharacters as specified by HTML 4.01. The resulting strings can be used both in attribute values and in most elements' text contents, provided that the HTML document's character encoding can encode any non-ASCII code points in the input (as UTF-8 and other Unicode encodings can).

Note: This escaper only performs minimal escaping to make content structurally compatible with HTML. Specifically, it does not perform entity replacement (symbolic or numeric), so it does not replace non-ASCII code points with character references. This escaper escapes only the following five ASCII characters: '"&<>.

  public static Escaper htmlEscaper() {
    return ;
  private static final Escaper HTML_ESCAPER =
          // Note: "&apos;" is not defined in HTML 4.01.
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