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d3.layout.histogram = function() {
  var frequency = true,
      valuer = Number,
      ranger = d3_layout_histogramRange,
      binner = d3_layout_histogramBinSturges;

  function histogram(data, i) {
    var bins = [],
        values = data.map(valuer, this),
        range = ranger.call(this, values, i),
        thresholds = binner.call(this, range, values, i),
        bin,
        i = -1,
        n = values.length,
        m = thresholds.length - 1,
        k = frequency ? 1 : 1 / n,
        x;

    // Initialize the bins.
    while (++i < m) {
      bin = bins[i] = [];
      bin.dx = thresholds[i + 1] - (bin.x = thresholds[i]);
      bin.y = 0;
    }

    // Fill the bins, ignoring values outside the range.
    if (m > 0) {
      i = -1; while(++i < n) {
        x = values[i];
        if (x >= range[0] && x <= range[1]) {
          bin = bins[d3.bisect(thresholds, x, 1, m) - 1];
          bin.y += k;
          bin.push(data[i]);
        }
      }
    }

    return bins;
  }

  // Specifies how to extract a value from the associated data. The default
  // value function is `Number`, which is equivalent to the identity function.
  histogram.value = function(x) {
    if (!arguments.length) return valuer;
    valuer = x;
    return histogram;
  };

  // Specifies the range of the histogram. Values outside the specified range
  // will be ignored. The argument `x` may be specified either as a two-element
  // array representing the minimum and maximum value of the range, or as a
  // function that returns the range given the array of values and the current
  // index `i`. The default range is the extent (minimum and maximum) of the
  // values.
  histogram.range = function(x) {
    if (!arguments.length) return ranger;
    ranger = d3_functor(x);
    return histogram;
  };

  // Specifies how to bin values in the histogram. The argument `x` may be
  // specified as a number, in which case the range of values will be split
  // uniformly into the given number of bins. Or, `x` may be an array of
  // threshold values, defining the bins; the specified array must contain the
  // rightmost (upper) value, thus specifying n + 1 values for n bins. Or, `x`
  // may be a function which is evaluated, being passed the range, the array of
  // values, and the current index `i`, returning an array of thresholds. The
  // default bin function will divide the values into uniform bins using
  // Sturges' formula.
  histogram.bins = function(x) {
    if (!arguments.length) return binner;
    binner = typeof x === "number"
        ? function(range) { return d3_layout_histogramBinFixed(range, x); }
        : d3_functor(x);
    return histogram;
  };

  // Specifies whether the histogram's `y` value is a count (frequency) or a
  // probability (density). The default value is true.
  histogram.frequency = function(x) {
    if (!arguments.length) return frequency;
    frequency = !!x;
    return histogram;
  };

  return histogram;
};

function d3_layout_histogramBinSturges(range, values) {
  return d3_layout_histogramBinFixed(range, Math.ceil(Math.log(values.length) / Math.LN2 + 1));
}

function d3_layout_histogramBinFixed(range, n) {
  var x = -1,
      b = +range[0],
      m = (range[1] - b) / n,
      f = [];
  while (++x <= n) f[x] = m * x + b;
  return f;
}

function d3_layout_histogramRange(values) {
  return [d3.min(values), d3.max(values)];
}
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