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/**
 * @license AngularJS v1.0.8
 * (c) 2010-2012 Google, Inc. http://angularjs.org
 * License: MIT
 */
(function(window, document, undefined) {
'use strict';

////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.lowercase
 * @function
 *
 * @description Converts the specified string to lowercase.
 * @param {string} string String to be converted to lowercase.
 * @returns {string} Lowercased string.
 */
var lowercase = function(string){return isString(string) ? string.toLowerCase() : string;};


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.uppercase
 * @function
 *
 * @description Converts the specified string to uppercase.
 * @param {string} string String to be converted to uppercase.
 * @returns {string} Uppercased string.
 */
var uppercase = function(string){return isString(string) ? string.toUpperCase() : string;};


var manualLowercase = function(s) {
  return isString(s)
      ? s.replace(/[A-Z]/g, function(ch) {return String.fromCharCode(ch.charCodeAt(0) | 32);})
      : s;
};
var manualUppercase = function(s) {
  return isString(s)
      ? s.replace(/[a-z]/g, function(ch) {return String.fromCharCode(ch.charCodeAt(0) & ~32);})
      : s;
};


// String#toLowerCase and String#toUpperCase don't produce correct results in browsers with Turkish
// locale, for this reason we need to detect this case and redefine lowercase/uppercase methods
// with correct but slower alternatives.
if ('i' !== 'I'.toLowerCase()) {
  lowercase = manualLowercase;
  uppercase = manualUppercase;
}


var /** holds major version number for IE or NaN for real browsers */
    msie              = int((/msie (\d+)/.exec(lowercase(navigator.userAgent)) || [])[1]),
    jqLite,           // delay binding since jQuery could be loaded after us.
    jQuery,           // delay binding
    slice             = [].slice,
    push              = [].push,
    toString          = Object.prototype.toString,

    /** @name angular */
    angular           = window.angular || (window.angular = {}),
    angularModule,
    nodeName_,
    uid               = ['0', '0', '0'];


/**
 * @private
 * @param {*} obj
 * @return {boolean} Returns true if `obj` is an array or array-like object (NodeList, Arguments, ...)
 */
function isArrayLike(obj) {
  if (!obj || (typeof obj.length !== 'number')) return false;

  // We have on object which has length property. Should we treat it as array?
  if (typeof obj.hasOwnProperty != 'function' &&
      typeof obj.constructor != 'function') {
    // This is here for IE8: it is a bogus object treat it as array;
    return true;
  } else  {
    return obj instanceof JQLite ||                      // JQLite
           (jQuery && obj instanceof jQuery) ||          // jQuery
           toString.call(obj) !== '[object Object]' ||   // some browser native object
           typeof obj.callee === 'function';              // arguments (on IE8 looks like regular obj)
  }
}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.forEach
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Invokes the `iterator` function once for each item in `obj` collection, which can be either an
 * object or an array. The `iterator` function is invoked with `iterator(value, key)`, where `value`
 * is the value of an object property or an array element and `key` is the object property key or
 * array element index. Specifying a `context` for the function is optional.
 *
 * Note: this function was previously known as `angular.foreach`.
 *
   <pre>
     var values = {name: 'misko', gender: 'male'};
     var log = [];
     angular.forEach(values, function(value, key){
       this.push(key + ': ' + value);
     }, log);
     expect(log).toEqual(['name: misko', 'gender:male']);
   </pre>
 *
 * @param {Object|Array} obj Object to iterate over.
 * @param {Function} iterator Iterator function.
 * @param {Object=} context Object to become context (`this`) for the iterator function.
 * @returns {Object|Array} Reference to `obj`.
 */
function forEach(obj, iterator, context) {
  var key;
  if (obj) {
    if (isFunction(obj)){
      for (key in obj) {
        if (key != 'prototype' && key != 'length' && key != 'name' && obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
          iterator.call(context, obj[key], key);
        }
      }
    } else if (obj.forEach && obj.forEach !== forEach) {
      obj.forEach(iterator, context);
    } else if (isArrayLike(obj)) {
      for (key = 0; key < obj.length; key++)
        iterator.call(context, obj[key], key);
    } else {
      for (key in obj) {
        if (obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
          iterator.call(context, obj[key], key);
        }
      }
    }
  }
  return obj;
}

function sortedKeys(obj) {
  var keys = [];
  for (var key in obj) {
    if (obj.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
      keys.push(key);
    }
  }
  return keys.sort();
}

function forEachSorted(obj, iterator, context) {
  var keys = sortedKeys(obj);
  for ( var i = 0; i < keys.length; i++) {
    iterator.call(context, obj[keys[i]], keys[i]);
  }
  return keys;
}


/**
 * when using forEach the params are value, key, but it is often useful to have key, value.
 * @param {function(string, *)} iteratorFn
 * @returns {function(*, string)}
 */
function reverseParams(iteratorFn) {
  return function(value, key) { iteratorFn(key, value) };
}

/**
 * A consistent way of creating unique IDs in angular. The ID is a sequence of alpha numeric
 * characters such as '012ABC'. The reason why we are not using simply a number counter is that
 * the number string gets longer over time, and it can also overflow, where as the nextId
 * will grow much slower, it is a string, and it will never overflow.
 *
 * @returns an unique alpha-numeric string
 */
function nextUid() {
  var index = uid.length;
  var digit;

  while(index) {
    index--;
    digit = uid[index].charCodeAt(0);
    if (digit == 57 /*'9'*/) {
      uid[index] = 'A';
      return uid.join('');
    }
    if (digit == 90  /*'Z'*/) {
      uid[index] = '0';
    } else {
      uid[index] = String.fromCharCode(digit + 1);
      return uid.join('');
    }
  }
  uid.unshift('0');
  return uid.join('');
}


/**
 * Set or clear the hashkey for an object.
 * @param obj object 
 * @param h the hashkey (!truthy to delete the hashkey)
 */
function setHashKey(obj, h) {
  if (h) {
    obj.$$hashKey = h;
  }
  else {
    delete obj.$$hashKey;
  }
}

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.extend
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Extends the destination object `dst` by copying all of the properties from the `src` object(s)
 * to `dst`. You can specify multiple `src` objects.
 *
 * @param {Object} dst Destination object.
 * @param {...Object} src Source object(s).
 * @returns {Object} Reference to `dst`.
 */
function extend(dst) {
  var h = dst.$$hashKey;
  forEach(arguments, function(obj){
    if (obj !== dst) {
      forEach(obj, function(value, key){
        dst[key] = value;
      });
    }
  });

  setHashKey(dst,h);
  return dst;
}

function int(str) {
  return parseInt(str, 10);
}


function inherit(parent, extra) {
  return extend(new (extend(function() {}, {prototype:parent}))(), extra);
}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.noop
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * A function that performs no operations. This function can be useful when writing code in the
 * functional style.
   <pre>
     function foo(callback) {
       var result = calculateResult();
       (callback || angular.noop)(result);
     }
   </pre>
 */
function noop() {}
noop.$inject = [];


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.identity
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * A function that returns its first argument. This function is useful when writing code in the
 * functional style.
 *
   <pre>
     function transformer(transformationFn, value) {
       return (transformationFn || angular.identity)(value);
     };
   </pre>
 */
function identity($) {return $;}
identity.$inject = [];


function valueFn(value) {return function() {return value;};}

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isUndefined
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a reference is undefined.
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is undefined.
 */
function isUndefined(value){return typeof value == 'undefined';}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isDefined
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a reference is defined.
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is defined.
 */
function isDefined(value){return typeof value != 'undefined';}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isObject
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a reference is an `Object`. Unlike `typeof` in JavaScript, `null`s are not
 * considered to be objects.
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is an `Object` but not `null`.
 */
function isObject(value){return value != null && typeof value == 'object';}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isString
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a reference is a `String`.
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is a `String`.
 */
function isString(value){return typeof value == 'string';}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isNumber
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a reference is a `Number`.
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is a `Number`.
 */
function isNumber(value){return typeof value == 'number';}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isDate
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a value is a date.
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is a `Date`.
 */
function isDate(value){
  return toString.apply(value) == '[object Date]';
}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isArray
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a reference is an `Array`.
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is an `Array`.
 */
function isArray(value) {
  return toString.apply(value) == '[object Array]';
}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isFunction
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a reference is a `Function`.
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is a `Function`.
 */
function isFunction(value){return typeof value == 'function';}


/**
 * Determines if a value is a regular expression object.
 *
 * @private
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is a `RegExp`.
 */
function isRegExp(value) {
  return toString.apply(value) == '[object RegExp]';
}


/**
 * Checks if `obj` is a window object.
 *
 * @private
 * @param {*} obj Object to check
 * @returns {boolean} True if `obj` is a window obj.
 */
function isWindow(obj) {
  return obj && obj.document && obj.location && obj.alert && obj.setInterval;
}


function isScope(obj) {
  return obj && obj.$evalAsync && obj.$watch;
}


function isFile(obj) {
  return toString.apply(obj) === '[object File]';
}


function isBoolean(value) {
  return typeof value == 'boolean';
}


var trim = (function() {
  // native trim is way faster: http://jsperf.com/angular-trim-test
  // but IE doesn't have it... :-(
  // TODO: we should move this into IE/ES5 polyfill
  if (!String.prototype.trim) {
    return function(value) {
      return isString(value) ? value.replace(/^\s*/, '').replace(/\s*$/, '') : value;
    };
  }
  return function(value) {
    return isString(value) ? value.trim() : value;
  };
})();


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.isElement
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if a reference is a DOM element (or wrapped jQuery element).
 *
 * @param {*} value Reference to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` is a DOM element (or wrapped jQuery element).
 */
function isElement(node) {
  return node &&
    (node.nodeName  // we are a direct element
    || (node.bind && node.find));  // we have a bind and find method part of jQuery API
}

/**
 * @param str 'key1,key2,...'
 * @returns {object} in the form of {key1:true, key2:true, ...}
 */
function makeMap(str){
  var obj = {}, items = str.split(","), i;
  for ( i = 0; i < items.length; i++ )
    obj[ items[i] ] = true;
  return obj;
}


if (msie < 9) {
  nodeName_ = function(element) {
    element = element.nodeName ? element : element[0];
    return (element.scopeName && element.scopeName != 'HTML')
      ? uppercase(element.scopeName + ':' + element.nodeName) : element.nodeName;
  };
} else {
  nodeName_ = function(element) {
    return element.nodeName ? element.nodeName : element[0].nodeName;
  };
}


function map(obj, iterator, context) {
  var results = [];
  forEach(obj, function(value, index, list) {
    results.push(iterator.call(context, value, index, list));
  });
  return results;
}


/**
 * @description
 * Determines the number of elements in an array, the number of properties an object has, or
 * the length of a string.
 *
 * Note: This function is used to augment the Object type in Angular expressions. See
 * {@link angular.Object} for more information about Angular arrays.
 *
 * @param {Object|Array|string} obj Object, array, or string to inspect.
 * @param {boolean} [ownPropsOnly=false] Count only "own" properties in an object
 * @returns {number} The size of `obj` or `0` if `obj` is neither an object nor an array.
 */
function size(obj, ownPropsOnly) {
  var size = 0, key;

  if (isArray(obj) || isString(obj)) {
    return obj.length;
  } else if (isObject(obj)){
    for (key in obj)
      if (!ownPropsOnly || obj.hasOwnProperty(key))
        size++;
  }

  return size;
}


function includes(array, obj) {
  return indexOf(array, obj) != -1;
}

function indexOf(array, obj) {
  if (array.indexOf) return array.indexOf(obj);

  for ( var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
    if (obj === array[i]) return i;
  }
  return -1;
}

function arrayRemove(array, value) {
  var index = indexOf(array, value);
  if (index >=0)
    array.splice(index, 1);
  return value;
}

function isLeafNode (node) {
  if (node) {
    switch (node.nodeName) {
    case "OPTION":
    case "PRE":
    case "TITLE":
      return true;
    }
  }
  return false;
}

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.copy
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Creates a deep copy of `source`, which should be an object or an array.
 *
 * * If no destination is supplied, a copy of the object or array is created.
 * * If a destination is provided, all of its elements (for array) or properties (for objects)
 *   are deleted and then all elements/properties from the source are copied to it.
 * * If  `source` is not an object or array, `source` is returned.
 *
 * Note: this function is used to augment the Object type in Angular expressions. See
 * {@link ng.$filter} for more information about Angular arrays.
 *
 * @param {*} source The source that will be used to make a copy.
 *                   Can be any type, including primitives, `null`, and `undefined`.
 * @param {(Object|Array)=} destination Destination into which the source is copied. If
 *     provided, must be of the same type as `source`.
 * @returns {*} The copy or updated `destination`, if `destination` was specified.
 */
function copy(source, destination){
  if (isWindow(source) || isScope(source)) throw Error("Can't copy Window or Scope");
  if (!destination) {
    destination = source;
    if (source) {
      if (isArray(source)) {
        destination = copy(source, []);
      } else if (isDate(source)) {
        destination = new Date(source.getTime());
      } else if (isRegExp(source)) {
        destination = new RegExp(source.source);
      } else if (isObject(source)) {
        destination = copy(source, {});
      }
    }
  } else {
    if (source === destination) throw Error("Can't copy equivalent objects or arrays");
    if (isArray(source)) {
      destination.length = 0;
      for ( var i = 0; i < source.length; i++) {
        destination.push(copy(source[i]));
      }
    } else {
      var h = destination.$$hashKey;
      forEach(destination, function(value, key){
        delete destination[key];
      });
      for ( var key in source) {
        destination[key] = copy(source[key]);
      }
      setHashKey(destination,h);
    }
  }
  return destination;
}

/**
 * Create a shallow copy of an object
 */
function shallowCopy(src, dst) {
  dst = dst || {};

  for(var key in src) {
    if (src.hasOwnProperty(key) && key.substr(0, 2) !== '$$') {
      dst[key] = src[key];
    }
  }

  return dst;
}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.equals
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Determines if two objects or two values are equivalent. Supports value types, regular expressions, arrays and
 * objects.
 *
 * Two objects or values are considered equivalent if at least one of the following is true:
 *
 * * Both objects or values pass `===` comparison.
 * * Both objects or values are of the same type and all of their properties pass `===` comparison.
 * * Both values are NaN. (In JavasScript, NaN == NaN => false. But we consider two NaN as equal)
 * * Both values represent the same regular expression (In JavasScript,
 *   /abc/ == /abc/ => false. But we consider two regular expressions as equal when their textual
 *   representation matches).
 *
 * During a property comparision, properties of `function` type and properties with names
 * that begin with `$` are ignored.
 *
 * Scope and DOMWindow objects are being compared only by identify (`===`).
 *
 * @param {*} o1 Object or value to compare.
 * @param {*} o2 Object or value to compare.
 * @returns {boolean} True if arguments are equal.
 */
function equals(o1, o2) {
  if (o1 === o2) return true;
  if (o1 === null || o2 === null) return false;
  if (o1 !== o1 && o2 !== o2) return true; // NaN === NaN
  var t1 = typeof o1, t2 = typeof o2, length, key, keySet;
  if (t1 == t2) {
    if (t1 == 'object') {
      if (isArray(o1)) {
        if (!isArray(o2)) return false;
        if ((length = o1.length) == o2.length) {
          for(key=0; key<length; key++) {
            if (!equals(o1[key], o2[key])) return false;
          }
          return true;
        }
      } else if (isDate(o1)) {
        return isDate(o2) && o1.getTime() == o2.getTime();
      } else if (isRegExp(o1) && isRegExp(o2)) {
        return o1.toString() == o2.toString();
      } else {
        if (isScope(o1) || isScope(o2) || isWindow(o1) || isWindow(o2) || isArray(o2)) return false;
        keySet = {};
        for(key in o1) {
          if (key.charAt(0) === '$' || isFunction(o1[key])) continue;
          if (!equals(o1[key], o2[key])) return false;
          keySet[key] = true;
        }
        for(key in o2) {
          if (!keySet[key] &&
              key.charAt(0) !== '$' &&
              o2[key] !== undefined &&
              !isFunction(o2[key])) return false;
        }
        return true;
      }
    }
  }
  return false;
}


function concat(array1, array2, index) {
  return array1.concat(slice.call(array2, index));
}

function sliceArgs(args, startIndex) {
  return slice.call(args, startIndex || 0);
}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.bind
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Returns a function which calls function `fn` bound to `self` (`self` becomes the `this` for
 * `fn`). You can supply optional `args` that are prebound to the function. This feature is also
 * known as [function currying](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Currying).
 *
 * @param {Object} self Context which `fn` should be evaluated in.
 * @param {function()} fn Function to be bound.
 * @param {...*} args Optional arguments to be prebound to the `fn` function call.
 * @returns {function()} Function that wraps the `fn` with all the specified bindings.
 */
function bind(self, fn) {
  var curryArgs = arguments.length > 2 ? sliceArgs(arguments, 2) : [];
  if (isFunction(fn) && !(fn instanceof RegExp)) {
    return curryArgs.length
      ? function() {
          return arguments.length
            ? fn.apply(self, curryArgs.concat(slice.call(arguments, 0)))
            : fn.apply(self, curryArgs);
        }
      : function() {
          return arguments.length
            ? fn.apply(self, arguments)
            : fn.call(self);
        };
  } else {
    // in IE, native methods are not functions so they cannot be bound (note: they don't need to be)
    return fn;
  }
}


function toJsonReplacer(key, value) {
  var val = value;

  if (/^\$+/.test(key)) {
    val = undefined;
  } else if (isWindow(value)) {
    val = '$WINDOW';
  } else if (value &&  document === value) {
    val = '$DOCUMENT';
  } else if (isScope(value)) {
    val = '$SCOPE';
  }

  return val;
}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.toJson
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Serializes input into a JSON-formatted string. Properties with leading $ characters will be
 * stripped since angular uses this notation internally.
 *
 * @param {Object|Array|Date|string|number} obj Input to be serialized into JSON.
 * @param {boolean=} pretty If set to true, the JSON output will contain newlines and whitespace.
 * @returns {string|undefined} Jsonified string representing `obj`.
 */
function toJson(obj, pretty) {
  if (typeof obj === 'undefined') return undefined;
  return JSON.stringify(obj, toJsonReplacer, pretty ? '  ' : null);
}


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.fromJson
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Deserializes a JSON string.
 *
 * @param {string} json JSON string to deserialize.
 * @returns {Object|Array|Date|string|number} Deserialized thingy.
 */
function fromJson(json) {
  return isString(json)
      ? JSON.parse(json)
      : json;
}


function toBoolean(value) {
  if (value && value.length !== 0) {
    var v = lowercase("" + value);
    value = !(v == 'f' || v == '0' || v == 'false' || v == 'no' || v == 'n' || v == '[]');
  } else {
    value = false;
  }
  return value;
}

/**
 * @returns {string} Returns the string representation of the element.
 */
function startingTag(element) {
  element = jqLite(element).clone();
  try {
    // turns out IE does not let you set .html() on elements which
    // are not allowed to have children. So we just ignore it.
    element.html('');
  } catch(e) {}
  // As Per DOM Standards
  var TEXT_NODE = 3;
  var elemHtml = jqLite('<div>').append(element).html();
  try {
    return element[0].nodeType === TEXT_NODE ? lowercase(elemHtml) :
        elemHtml.
          match(/^(<[^>]+>)/)[1].
          replace(/^<([\w\-]+)/, function(match, nodeName) { return '<' + lowercase(nodeName); });
  } catch(e) {
    return lowercase(elemHtml);
  }

}


/////////////////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * Tries to decode the URI component without throwing an exception.
 *
 * @private
 * @param str value potential URI component to check.
 * @returns {boolean} True if `value` can be decoded
 * with the decodeURIComponent function.
 */
function tryDecodeURIComponent(value) {
  try {
    return decodeURIComponent(value);
  } catch(e) {
    // Ignore any invalid uri component
  }
}


/**
 * Parses an escaped url query string into key-value pairs.
 * @returns Object.<(string|boolean)>
 */
function parseKeyValue(/**string*/keyValue) {
  var obj = {}, key_value, key;
  forEach((keyValue || "").split('&'), function(keyValue){
    if ( keyValue ) {
      key_value = keyValue.split('=');
      key = tryDecodeURIComponent(key_value[0]);
      if ( isDefined(key) ) {
        obj[key] = isDefined(key_value[1]) ? tryDecodeURIComponent(key_value[1]) : true;
      }
    }
  });
  return obj;
}

function toKeyValue(obj) {
  var parts = [];
  forEach(obj, function(value, key) {
    parts.push(encodeUriQuery(key, true) + (value === true ? '' : '=' + encodeUriQuery(value, true)));
  });
  return parts.length ? parts.join('&') : '';
}


/**
 * We need our custom method because encodeURIComponent is too agressive and doesn't follow
 * http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt with regards to the character set (pchar) allowed in path
 * segments:
 *    segment       = *pchar
 *    pchar         = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims / ":" / "@"
 *    pct-encoded   = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG
 *    unreserved    = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~"
 *    sub-delims    = "!" / "$" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")"
 *                     / "*" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="
 */
function encodeUriSegment(val) {
  return encodeUriQuery(val, true).
             replace(/%26/gi, '&').
             replace(/%3D/gi, '=').
             replace(/%2B/gi, '+');
}


/**
 * This method is intended for encoding *key* or *value* parts of query component. We need a custom
 * method becuase encodeURIComponent is too agressive and encodes stuff that doesn't have to be
 * encoded per http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986:
 *    query       = *( pchar / "/" / "?" )
 *    pchar         = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims / ":" / "@"
 *    unreserved    = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~"
 *    pct-encoded   = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG
 *    sub-delims    = "!" / "$" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")"
 *                     / "*" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="
 */
function encodeUriQuery(val, pctEncodeSpaces) {
  return encodeURIComponent(val).
             replace(/%40/gi, '@').
             replace(/%3A/gi, ':').
             replace(/%24/g, '$').
             replace(/%2C/gi, ',').
             replace(/%20/g, (pctEncodeSpaces ? '%20' : '+'));
}


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngApp
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {angular.Module} ngApp an optional application
 *   {@link angular.module module} name to load.
 *
 * @description
 *
 * Use this directive to auto-bootstrap an application. Only
 * one ngApp directive can be used per HTML document. The directive
 * designates the root of the application and is typically placed
 * at the root of the page.
 *
 * The first ngApp found in the document will be auto-bootstrapped. To use multiple applications in an
 * HTML document you must manually bootstrap them using {@link angular.bootstrap}.
 * Applications cannot be nested.
 *
 * In the example below if the `ngApp` directive would not be placed
 * on the `html` element then the document would not be compiled
 * and the `{{ 1+2 }}` would not be resolved to `3`.
 *
 * `ngApp` is the easiest way to bootstrap an application.
 *
 <doc:example>
   <doc:source>
    I can add: 1 + 2 =  {{ 1+2 }}
   </doc:source>
 </doc:example>
 *
 */
function angularInit(element, bootstrap) {
  var elements = [element],
      appElement,
      module,
      names = ['ng:app', 'ng-app', 'x-ng-app', 'data-ng-app'],
      NG_APP_CLASS_REGEXP = /\sng[:\-]app(:\s*([\w\d_]+);?)?\s/;

  function append(element) {
    element && elements.push(element);
  }

  forEach(names, function(name) {
    names[name] = true;
    append(document.getElementById(name));
    name = name.replace(':', '\\:');
    if (element.querySelectorAll) {
      forEach(element.querySelectorAll('.' + name), append);
      forEach(element.querySelectorAll('.' + name + '\\:'), append);
      forEach(element.querySelectorAll('[' + name + ']'), append);
    }
  });

  forEach(elements, function(element) {
    if (!appElement) {
      var className = ' ' + element.className + ' ';
      var match = NG_APP_CLASS_REGEXP.exec(className);
      if (match) {
        appElement = element;
        module = (match[2] || '').replace(/\s+/g, ',');
      } else {
        forEach(element.attributes, function(attr) {
          if (!appElement && names[attr.name]) {
            appElement = element;
            module = attr.value;
          }
        });
      }
    }
  });
  if (appElement) {
    bootstrap(appElement, module ? [module] : []);
  }
}

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.bootstrap
 * @description
 * Use this function to manually start up angular application.
 *
 * See: {@link guide/bootstrap Bootstrap}
 *
 * Note that ngScenario-based end-to-end tests cannot use this function to bootstrap manually.
 * They must use {@link api/ng.directive:ngApp ngApp}.
 *
 * @param {Element} element DOM element which is the root of angular application.
 * @param {Array<String|Function>=} modules an array of module declarations. See: {@link angular.module modules}
 * @returns {AUTO.$injector} Returns the newly created injector for this app.
 */
function bootstrap(element, modules) {
  var doBootstrap = function() {
    element = jqLite(element);
    modules = modules || [];
    modules.unshift(['$provide', function($provide) {
      $provide.value('$rootElement', element);
    }]);
    modules.unshift('ng');
    var injector = createInjector(modules);
    injector.invoke(['$rootScope', '$rootElement', '$compile', '$injector',
       function(scope, element, compile, injector) {
        scope.$apply(function() {
          element.data('$injector', injector);
          compile(element)(scope);
        });
      }]
    );
    return injector;
  };

  var NG_DEFER_BOOTSTRAP = /^NG_DEFER_BOOTSTRAP!/;

  if (window && !NG_DEFER_BOOTSTRAP.test(window.name)) {
    return doBootstrap();
  }

  window.name = window.name.replace(NG_DEFER_BOOTSTRAP, '');
  angular.resumeBootstrap = function(extraModules) {
    forEach(extraModules, function(module) {
      modules.push(module);
    });
    doBootstrap();
  };
}

var SNAKE_CASE_REGEXP = /[A-Z]/g;
function snake_case(name, separator){
  separator = separator || '_';
  return name.replace(SNAKE_CASE_REGEXP, function(letter, pos) {
    return (pos ? separator : '') + letter.toLowerCase();
  });
}

function bindJQuery() {
  // bind to jQuery if present;
  jQuery = window.jQuery;
  // reset to jQuery or default to us.
  if (jQuery) {
    jqLite = jQuery;
    extend(jQuery.fn, {
      scope: JQLitePrototype.scope,
      controller: JQLitePrototype.controller,
      injector: JQLitePrototype.injector,
      inheritedData: JQLitePrototype.inheritedData
    });
    // Method signature: JQLitePatchJQueryRemove(name, dispatchThis, filterElems, getterIfNoArguments)
    JQLitePatchJQueryRemove('remove', true, true, false);
    JQLitePatchJQueryRemove('empty', false, false, false);
    JQLitePatchJQueryRemove('html', false, false, true);
  } else {
    jqLite = JQLite;
  }
  angular.element = jqLite;
}

/**
 * throw error if the argument is falsy.
 */
function assertArg(arg, name, reason) {
  if (!arg) {
    throw new Error("Argument '" + (name || '?') + "' is " + (reason || "required"));
  }
  return arg;
}

function assertArgFn(arg, name, acceptArrayAnnotation) {
  if (acceptArrayAnnotation && isArray(arg)) {
      arg = arg[arg.length - 1];
  }

  assertArg(isFunction(arg), name, 'not a function, got ' +
      (arg && typeof arg == 'object' ? arg.constructor.name || 'Object' : typeof arg));
  return arg;
}

/**
 * Return the value accessible from the object by path. Any undefined traversals are ignored
 * @param {Object} obj starting object
 * @param {string} path path to traverse
 * @param {boolean=true} bindFnToScope
 * @returns value as accessible by path
 */
//TODO(misko): this function needs to be removed
function getter(obj, path, bindFnToScope) {
  if (!path) return obj;
  var keys = path.split('.');
  var key;
  var lastInstance = obj;
  var len = keys.length;

  for (var i = 0; i < len; i++) {
    key = keys[i];
    if (obj) {
      obj = (lastInstance = obj)[key];
    }
  }
  if (!bindFnToScope && isFunction(obj)) {
    return bind(lastInstance, obj);
  }
  return obj;
}

/**
 * @ngdoc interface
 * @name angular.Module
 * @description
 *
 * Interface for configuring angular {@link angular.module modules}.
 */

function setupModuleLoader(window) {

  function ensure(obj, name, factory) {
    return obj[name] || (obj[name] = factory());
  }

  return ensure(ensure(window, 'angular', Object), 'module', function() {
    /** @type {Object.<string, angular.Module>} */
    var modules = {};

    /**
     * @ngdoc function
     * @name angular.module
     * @description
     *
     * The `angular.module` is a global place for creating and registering Angular modules. All
     * modules (angular core or 3rd party) that should be available to an application must be
     * registered using this mechanism.
     *
     *
     * # Module
     *
     * A module is a collection of services, directives, filters, and configuration information.
     * `angular.module` is used to configure the {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}.
     *
     * <pre>
     * // Create a new module
     * var myModule = angular.module('myModule', []);
     *
     * // register a new service
     * myModule.value('appName', 'MyCoolApp');
     *
     * // configure existing services inside initialization blocks.
     * myModule.config(function($locationProvider) {
     *   // Configure existing providers
     *   $locationProvider.hashPrefix('!');
     * });
     * </pre>
     *
     * Then you can create an injector and load your modules like this:
     *
     * <pre>
     * var injector = angular.injector(['ng', 'MyModule'])
     * </pre>
     *
     * However it's more likely that you'll just use
     * {@link ng.directive:ngApp ngApp} or
     * {@link angular.bootstrap} to simplify this process for you.
     *
     * @param {!string} name The name of the module to create or retrieve.
     * @param {Array.<string>=} requires If specified then new module is being created. If unspecified then the
     *        the module is being retrieved for further configuration.
     * @param {Function} configFn Optional configuration function for the module. Same as
     *        {@link angular.Module#config Module#config()}.
     * @returns {module} new module with the {@link angular.Module} api.
     */
    return function module(name, requires, configFn) {
      if (requires && modules.hasOwnProperty(name)) {
        modules[name] = null;
      }
      return ensure(modules, name, function() {
        if (!requires) {
          throw Error('No module: ' + name);
        }

        /** @type {!Array.<Array.<*>>} */
        var invokeQueue = [];

        /** @type {!Array.<Function>} */
        var runBlocks = [];

        var config = invokeLater('$injector', 'invoke');

        /** @type {angular.Module} */
        var moduleInstance = {
          // Private state
          _invokeQueue: invokeQueue,
          _runBlocks: runBlocks,

          /**
           * @ngdoc property
           * @name angular.Module#requires
           * @propertyOf angular.Module
           * @returns {Array.<string>} List of module names which must be loaded before this module.
           * @description
           * Holds the list of modules which the injector will load before the current module is loaded.
           */
          requires: requires,

          /**
           * @ngdoc property
           * @name angular.Module#name
           * @propertyOf angular.Module
           * @returns {string} Name of the module.
           * @description
           */
          name: name,


          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#provider
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {string} name service name
           * @param {Function} providerType Construction function for creating new instance of the service.
           * @description
           * See {@link AUTO.$provide#provider $provide.provider()}.
           */
          provider: invokeLater('$provide', 'provider'),

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#factory
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {string} name service name
           * @param {Function} providerFunction Function for creating new instance of the service.
           * @description
           * See {@link AUTO.$provide#factory $provide.factory()}.
           */
          factory: invokeLater('$provide', 'factory'),

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#service
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {string} name service name
           * @param {Function} constructor A constructor function that will be instantiated.
           * @description
           * See {@link AUTO.$provide#service $provide.service()}.
           */
          service: invokeLater('$provide', 'service'),

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#value
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {string} name service name
           * @param {*} object Service instance object.
           * @description
           * See {@link AUTO.$provide#value $provide.value()}.
           */
          value: invokeLater('$provide', 'value'),

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#constant
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {string} name constant name
           * @param {*} object Constant value.
           * @description
           * Because the constant are fixed, they get applied before other provide methods.
           * See {@link AUTO.$provide#constant $provide.constant()}.
           */
          constant: invokeLater('$provide', 'constant', 'unshift'),

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#filter
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {string} name Filter name.
           * @param {Function} filterFactory Factory function for creating new instance of filter.
           * @description
           * See {@link ng.$filterProvider#register $filterProvider.register()}.
           */
          filter: invokeLater('$filterProvider', 'register'),

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#controller
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {string} name Controller name.
           * @param {Function} constructor Controller constructor function.
           * @description
           * See {@link ng.$controllerProvider#register $controllerProvider.register()}.
           */
          controller: invokeLater('$controllerProvider', 'register'),

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#directive
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {string} name directive name
           * @param {Function} directiveFactory Factory function for creating new instance of
           * directives.
           * @description
           * See {@link ng.$compileProvider#directive $compileProvider.directive()}.
           */
          directive: invokeLater('$compileProvider', 'directive'),

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#config
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {Function} configFn Execute this function on module load. Useful for service
           *    configuration.
           * @description
           * Use this method to register work which needs to be performed on module loading.
           */
          config: config,

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name angular.Module#run
           * @methodOf angular.Module
           * @param {Function} initializationFn Execute this function after injector creation.
           *    Useful for application initialization.
           * @description
           * Use this method to register work which should be performed when the injector is done
           * loading all modules.
           */
          run: function(block) {
            runBlocks.push(block);
            return this;
          }
        };

        if (configFn) {
          config(configFn);
        }

        return  moduleInstance;

        /**
         * @param {string} provider
         * @param {string} method
         * @param {String=} insertMethod
         * @returns {angular.Module}
         */
        function invokeLater(provider, method, insertMethod) {
          return function() {
            invokeQueue[insertMethod || 'push']([provider, method, arguments]);
            return moduleInstance;
          }
        }
      });
    };
  });

}

/**
 * @ngdoc property
 * @name angular.version
 * @description
 * An object that contains information about the current AngularJS version. This object has the
 * following properties:
 *
 * - `full` – `{string}` – Full version string, such as "0.9.18".
 * - `major` – `{number}` – Major version number, such as "0".
 * - `minor` – `{number}` – Minor version number, such as "9".
 * - `dot` – `{number}` – Dot version number, such as "18".
 * - `codeName` – `{string}` – Code name of the release, such as "jiggling-armfat".
 */
var version = {
  full: '1.0.8',    // all of these placeholder strings will be replaced by grunt's
  major: 1,    // package task
  minor: 0,
  dot: 8,
  codeName: 'bubble-burst'
};


function publishExternalAPI(angular){
  extend(angular, {
    'bootstrap': bootstrap,
    'copy': copy,
    'extend': extend,
    'equals': equals,
    'element': jqLite,
    'forEach': forEach,
    'injector': createInjector,
    'noop':noop,
    'bind':bind,
    'toJson': toJson,
    'fromJson': fromJson,
    'identity':identity,
    'isUndefined': isUndefined,
    'isDefined': isDefined,
    'isString': isString,
    'isFunction': isFunction,
    'isObject': isObject,
    'isNumber': isNumber,
    'isElement': isElement,
    'isArray': isArray,
    'version': version,
    'isDate': isDate,
    'lowercase': lowercase,
    'uppercase': uppercase,
    'callbacks': {counter: 0}
  });

  angularModule = setupModuleLoader(window);
  try {
    angularModule('ngLocale');
  } catch (e) {
    angularModule('ngLocale', []).provider('$locale', $LocaleProvider);
  }

  angularModule('ng', ['ngLocale'], ['$provide',
    function ngModule($provide) {
      $provide.provider('$compile', $CompileProvider).
        directive({
            a: htmlAnchorDirective,
            input: inputDirective,
            textarea: inputDirective,
            form: formDirective,
            script: scriptDirective,
            select: selectDirective,
            style: styleDirective,
            option: optionDirective,
            ngBind: ngBindDirective,
            ngBindHtmlUnsafe: ngBindHtmlUnsafeDirective,
            ngBindTemplate: ngBindTemplateDirective,
            ngClass: ngClassDirective,
            ngClassEven: ngClassEvenDirective,
            ngClassOdd: ngClassOddDirective,
            ngCsp: ngCspDirective,
            ngCloak: ngCloakDirective,
            ngController: ngControllerDirective,
            ngForm: ngFormDirective,
            ngHide: ngHideDirective,
            ngInclude: ngIncludeDirective,
            ngInit: ngInitDirective,
            ngNonBindable: ngNonBindableDirective,
            ngPluralize: ngPluralizeDirective,
            ngRepeat: ngRepeatDirective,
            ngShow: ngShowDirective,
            ngStyle: ngStyleDirective,
            ngSwitch: ngSwitchDirective,
            ngSwitchWhen: ngSwitchWhenDirective,
            ngSwitchDefault: ngSwitchDefaultDirective,
            ngOptions: ngOptionsDirective,
            ngView: ngViewDirective,
            ngTransclude: ngTranscludeDirective,
            ngModel: ngModelDirective,
            ngList: ngListDirective,
            ngChange: ngChangeDirective,
            required: requiredDirective,
            ngRequired: requiredDirective,
            ngValue: ngValueDirective
        }).
        directive(ngAttributeAliasDirectives).
        directive(ngEventDirectives);
      $provide.provider({
        $anchorScroll: $AnchorScrollProvider,
        $browser: $BrowserProvider,
        $cacheFactory: $CacheFactoryProvider,
        $controller: $ControllerProvider,
        $document: $DocumentProvider,
        $exceptionHandler: $ExceptionHandlerProvider,
        $filter: $FilterProvider,
        $interpolate: $InterpolateProvider,
        $http: $HttpProvider,
        $httpBackend: $HttpBackendProvider,
        $location: $LocationProvider,
        $log: $LogProvider,
        $parse: $ParseProvider,
        $route: $RouteProvider,
        $routeParams: $RouteParamsProvider,
        $rootScope: $RootScopeProvider,
        $q: $QProvider,
        $sniffer: $SnifferProvider,
        $templateCache: $TemplateCacheProvider,
        $timeout: $TimeoutProvider,
        $window: $WindowProvider
      });
    }
  ]);
}

//////////////////////////////////
//JQLite
//////////////////////////////////

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.element
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Wraps a raw DOM element or HTML string as a [jQuery](http://jquery.com) element.
 * `angular.element` can be either an alias for [jQuery](http://api.jquery.com/jQuery/) function, if
 * jQuery is available, or a function that wraps the element or string in Angular's jQuery lite
 * implementation (commonly referred to as jqLite).
 *
 * Real jQuery always takes precedence over jqLite, provided it was loaded before `DOMContentLoaded`
 * event fired.
 *
 * jqLite is a tiny, API-compatible subset of jQuery that allows
 * Angular to manipulate the DOM. jqLite implements only the most commonly needed functionality
 * within a very small footprint, so only a subset of the jQuery API - methods, arguments and
 * invocation styles - are supported.
 *
 * Note: All element references in Angular are always wrapped with jQuery or jqLite; they are never
 * raw DOM references.
 *
 * ## Angular's jqLite
 * Angular's lite version of jQuery provides only the following jQuery methods:
 *
 * - [addClass()](http://api.jquery.com/addClass/)
 * - [after()](http://api.jquery.com/after/)
 * - [append()](http://api.jquery.com/append/)
 * - [attr()](http://api.jquery.com/attr/)
 * - [bind()](http://api.jquery.com/bind/) - Does not support namespaces
 * - [children()](http://api.jquery.com/children/) - Does not support selectors
 * - [clone()](http://api.jquery.com/clone/)
 * - [contents()](http://api.jquery.com/contents/)
 * - [css()](http://api.jquery.com/css/)
 * - [data()](http://api.jquery.com/data/)
 * - [eq()](http://api.jquery.com/eq/)
 * - [find()](http://api.jquery.com/find/) - Limited to lookups by tag name
 * - [hasClass()](http://api.jquery.com/hasClass/)
 * - [html()](http://api.jquery.com/html/)
 * - [next()](http://api.jquery.com/next/) - Does not support selectors
 * - [parent()](http://api.jquery.com/parent/) - Does not support selectors
 * - [prepend()](http://api.jquery.com/prepend/)
 * - [prop()](http://api.jquery.com/prop/)
 * - [ready()](http://api.jquery.com/ready/)
 * - [remove()](http://api.jquery.com/remove/)
 * - [removeAttr()](http://api.jquery.com/removeAttr/)
 * - [removeClass()](http://api.jquery.com/removeClass/)
 * - [removeData()](http://api.jquery.com/removeData/)
 * - [replaceWith()](http://api.jquery.com/replaceWith/)
 * - [text()](http://api.jquery.com/text/)
 * - [toggleClass()](http://api.jquery.com/toggleClass/)
 * - [triggerHandler()](http://api.jquery.com/triggerHandler/) - Doesn't pass native event objects to handlers.
 * - [unbind()](http://api.jquery.com/unbind/) - Does not support namespaces
 * - [val()](http://api.jquery.com/val/)
 * - [wrap()](http://api.jquery.com/wrap/)
 *
 * ## jQuery/jqLite Extras
 * Angular also provides the following additional methods and events to both jQuery and jqLite:
 *
 * ### Events
 * - `$destroy` - AngularJS intercepts all jqLite/jQuery's DOM destruction apis and fires this event
 *    on all DOM nodes being removed.  This can be used to clean up and 3rd party bindings to the DOM
 *    element before it is removed.
 * ### Methods
 * - `controller(name)` - retrieves the controller of the current element or its parent. By default
 *   retrieves controller associated with the `ngController` directive. If `name` is provided as
 *   camelCase directive name, then the controller for this directive will be retrieved (e.g.
 *   `'ngModel'`).
 * - `injector()` - retrieves the injector of the current element or its parent.
 * - `scope()` - retrieves the {@link api/ng.$rootScope.Scope scope} of the current
 *   element or its parent.
 * - `inheritedData()` - same as `data()`, but walks up the DOM until a value is found or the top
 *   parent element is reached.
 *
 * @param {string|DOMElement} element HTML string or DOMElement to be wrapped into jQuery.
 * @returns {Object} jQuery object.
 */

var jqCache = JQLite.cache = {},
    jqName = JQLite.expando = 'ng-' + new Date().getTime(),
    jqId = 1,
    addEventListenerFn = (window.document.addEventListener
      ? function(element, type, fn) {element.addEventListener(type, fn, false);}
      : function(element, type, fn) {element.attachEvent('on' + type, fn);}),
    removeEventListenerFn = (window.document.removeEventListener
      ? function(element, type, fn) {element.removeEventListener(type, fn, false); }
      : function(element, type, fn) {element.detachEvent('on' + type, fn); });

function jqNextId() { return ++jqId; }


var SPECIAL_CHARS_REGEXP = /([\:\-\_]+(.))/g;
var MOZ_HACK_REGEXP = /^moz([A-Z])/;

/**
 * Converts snake_case to camelCase.
 * Also there is special case for Moz prefix starting with upper case letter.
 * @param name Name to normalize
 */
function camelCase(name) {
  return name.
    replace(SPECIAL_CHARS_REGEXP, function(_, separator, letter, offset) {
      return offset ? letter.toUpperCase() : letter;
    }).
    replace(MOZ_HACK_REGEXP, 'Moz$1');
}

/////////////////////////////////////////////
// jQuery mutation patch
//
// In conjunction with bindJQuery intercepts all jQuery's DOM destruction apis and fires a
// $destroy event on all DOM nodes being removed.
//
/////////////////////////////////////////////

function JQLitePatchJQueryRemove(name, dispatchThis, filterElems, getterIfNoArguments) {
  var originalJqFn = jQuery.fn[name];
  originalJqFn = originalJqFn.$original || originalJqFn;
  removePatch.$original = originalJqFn;
  jQuery.fn[name] = removePatch;

  function removePatch(param) {
    var list = filterElems && param ? [this.filter(param)] : [this],
        fireEvent = dispatchThis,
        set, setIndex, setLength,
        element, childIndex, childLength, children;

    if (!getterIfNoArguments || param != null) {
      while(list.length) {
        set = list.shift();
        for(setIndex = 0, setLength = set.length; setIndex < setLength; setIndex++) {
          element = jqLite(set[setIndex]);
          if (fireEvent) {
            element.triggerHandler('$destroy');
          } else {
            fireEvent = !fireEvent;
          }
          for(childIndex = 0, childLength = (children = element.children()).length;
              childIndex < childLength;
              childIndex++) {
            list.push(jQuery(children[childIndex]));
          }
        }
      }
    }
    return originalJqFn.apply(this, arguments);
  }
}

/////////////////////////////////////////////
function JQLite(element) {
  if (element instanceof JQLite) {
    return element;
  }
  if (!(this instanceof JQLite)) {
    if (isString(element) && element.charAt(0) != '<') {
      throw Error('selectors not implemented');
    }
    return new JQLite(element);
  }

  if (isString(element)) {
    var div = document.createElement('div');
    // Read about the NoScope elements here:
    // http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms533897(VS.85).aspx
    div.innerHTML = '<div>&#160;</div>' + element; // IE insanity to make NoScope elements work!
    div.removeChild(div.firstChild); // remove the superfluous div
    JQLiteAddNodes(this, div.childNodes);
    this.remove(); // detach the elements from the temporary DOM div.
  } else {
    JQLiteAddNodes(this, element);
  }
}

function JQLiteClone(element) {
  return element.cloneNode(true);
}

function JQLiteDealoc(element){
  JQLiteRemoveData(element);
  for ( var i = 0, children = element.childNodes || []; i < children.length; i++) {
    JQLiteDealoc(children[i]);
  }
}

function JQLiteUnbind(element, type, fn) {
  var events = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'events'),
      handle = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'handle');

  if (!handle) return; //no listeners registered

  if (isUndefined(type)) {
    forEach(events, function(eventHandler, type) {
      removeEventListenerFn(element, type, eventHandler);
      delete events[type];
    });
  } else {
    if (isUndefined(fn)) {
      removeEventListenerFn(element, type, events[type]);
      delete events[type];
    } else {
      arrayRemove(events[type] || [], fn);
    }
  }
}

function JQLiteRemoveData(element) {
  var expandoId = element[jqName],
      expandoStore = jqCache[expandoId];

  if (expandoStore) {
    if (expandoStore.handle) {
      expandoStore.events.$destroy && expandoStore.handle({}, '$destroy');
      JQLiteUnbind(element);
    }
    delete jqCache[expandoId];
    element[jqName] = undefined; // ie does not allow deletion of attributes on elements.
  }
}

function JQLiteExpandoStore(element, key, value) {
  var expandoId = element[jqName],
      expandoStore = jqCache[expandoId || -1];

  if (isDefined(value)) {
    if (!expandoStore) {
      element[jqName] = expandoId = jqNextId();
      expandoStore = jqCache[expandoId] = {};
    }
    expandoStore[key] = value;
  } else {
    return expandoStore && expandoStore[key];
  }
}

function JQLiteData(element, key, value) {
  var data = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'data'),
      isSetter = isDefined(value),
      keyDefined = !isSetter && isDefined(key),
      isSimpleGetter = keyDefined && !isObject(key);

  if (!data && !isSimpleGetter) {
    JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'data', data = {});
  }

  if (isSetter) {
    data[key] = value;
  } else {
    if (keyDefined) {
      if (isSimpleGetter) {
        // don't create data in this case.
        return data && data[key];
      } else {
        extend(data, key);
      }
    } else {
      return data;
    }
  }
}

function JQLiteHasClass(element, selector) {
  return ((" " + element.className + " ").replace(/[\n\t]/g, " ").
      indexOf( " " + selector + " " ) > -1);
}

function JQLiteRemoveClass(element, cssClasses) {
  if (cssClasses) {
    forEach(cssClasses.split(' '), function(cssClass) {
      element.className = trim(
          (" " + element.className + " ")
          .replace(/[\n\t]/g, " ")
          .replace(" " + trim(cssClass) + " ", " ")
      );
    });
  }
}

function JQLiteAddClass(element, cssClasses) {
  if (cssClasses) {
    forEach(cssClasses.split(' '), function(cssClass) {
      if (!JQLiteHasClass(element, cssClass)) {
        element.className = trim(element.className + ' ' + trim(cssClass));
      }
    });
  }
}

function JQLiteAddNodes(root, elements) {
  if (elements) {
    elements = (!elements.nodeName && isDefined(elements.length) && !isWindow(elements))
      ? elements
      : [ elements ];
    for(var i=0; i < elements.length; i++) {
      root.push(elements[i]);
    }
  }
}

function JQLiteController(element, name) {
  return JQLiteInheritedData(element, '$' + (name || 'ngController' ) + 'Controller');
}

function JQLiteInheritedData(element, name, value) {
  element = jqLite(element);

  // if element is the document object work with the html element instead
  // this makes $(document).scope() possible
  if(element[0].nodeType == 9) {
    element = element.find('html');
  }

  while (element.length) {
    if (value = element.data(name)) return value;
    element = element.parent();
  }
}

//////////////////////////////////////////
// Functions which are declared directly.
//////////////////////////////////////////
var JQLitePrototype = JQLite.prototype = {
  ready: function(fn) {
    var fired = false;

    function trigger() {
      if (fired) return;
      fired = true;
      fn();
    }

    this.bind('DOMContentLoaded', trigger); // works for modern browsers and IE9
    // we can not use jqLite since we are not done loading and jQuery could be loaded later.
    JQLite(window).bind('load', trigger); // fallback to window.onload for others
  },
  toString: function() {
    var value = [];
    forEach(this, function(e){ value.push('' + e);});
    return '[' + value.join(', ') + ']';
  },

  eq: function(index) {
      return (index >= 0) ? jqLite(this[index]) : jqLite(this[this.length + index]);
  },

  length: 0,
  push: push,
  sort: [].sort,
  splice: [].splice
};

//////////////////////////////////////////
// Functions iterating getter/setters.
// these functions return self on setter and
// value on get.
//////////////////////////////////////////
var BOOLEAN_ATTR = {};
forEach('multiple,selected,checked,disabled,readOnly,required'.split(','), function(value) {
  BOOLEAN_ATTR[lowercase(value)] = value;
});
var BOOLEAN_ELEMENTS = {};
forEach('input,select,option,textarea,button,form'.split(','), function(value) {
  BOOLEAN_ELEMENTS[uppercase(value)] = true;
});

function getBooleanAttrName(element, name) {
  // check dom last since we will most likely fail on name
  var booleanAttr = BOOLEAN_ATTR[name.toLowerCase()];

  // booleanAttr is here twice to minimize DOM access
  return booleanAttr && BOOLEAN_ELEMENTS[element.nodeName] && booleanAttr;
}

forEach({
  data: JQLiteData,
  inheritedData: JQLiteInheritedData,

  scope: function(element) {
    return JQLiteInheritedData(element, '$scope');
  },

  controller: JQLiteController ,

  injector: function(element) {
    return JQLiteInheritedData(element, '$injector');
  },

  removeAttr: function(element,name) {
    element.removeAttribute(name);
  },

  hasClass: JQLiteHasClass,

  css: function(element, name, value) {
    name = camelCase(name);

    if (isDefined(value)) {
      element.style[name] = value;
    } else {
      var val;

      if (msie <= 8) {
        // this is some IE specific weirdness that jQuery 1.6.4 does not sure why
        val = element.currentStyle && element.currentStyle[name];
        if (val === '') val = 'auto';
      }

      val = val || element.style[name];

      if (msie <= 8) {
        // jquery weirdness :-/
        val = (val === '') ? undefined : val;
      }

      return  val;
    }
  },

  attr: function(element, name, value){
    var lowercasedName = lowercase(name);
    if (BOOLEAN_ATTR[lowercasedName]) {
      if (isDefined(value)) {
        if (!!value) {
          element[name] = true;
          element.setAttribute(name, lowercasedName);
        } else {
          element[name] = false;
          element.removeAttribute(lowercasedName);
        }
      } else {
        return (element[name] ||
                 (element.attributes.getNamedItem(name)|| noop).specified)
               ? lowercasedName
               : undefined;
      }
    } else if (isDefined(value)) {
      element.setAttribute(name, value);
    } else if (element.getAttribute) {
      // the extra argument "2" is to get the right thing for a.href in IE, see jQuery code
      // some elements (e.g. Document) don't have get attribute, so return undefined
      var ret = element.getAttribute(name, 2);
      // normalize non-existing attributes to undefined (as jQuery)
      return ret === null ? undefined : ret;
    }
  },

  prop: function(element, name, value) {
    if (isDefined(value)) {
      element[name] = value;
    } else {
      return element[name];
    }
  },

  text: extend((msie < 9)
      ? function(element, value) {
        if (element.nodeType == 1 /** Element */) {
          if (isUndefined(value))
            return element.innerText;
          element.innerText = value;
        } else {
          if (isUndefined(value))
            return element.nodeValue;
          element.nodeValue = value;
        }
      }
      : function(element, value) {
        if (isUndefined(value)) {
          return element.textContent;
        }
        element.textContent = value;
      }, {$dv:''}),

  val: function(element, value) {
    if (isUndefined(value)) {
      if (nodeName_(element) === 'SELECT' && element.multiple) {
        var result = [];
        forEach(element.options, function (option) {
          if (option.selected) {
            result.push(option.value || option.text);
          }
        });
        return result.length === 0 ? null : result;
      }
      return element.value;
    }
    element.value = value;
  },

  html: function(element, value) {
    if (isUndefined(value)) {
      return element.innerHTML;
    }
    for (var i = 0, childNodes = element.childNodes; i < childNodes.length; i++) {
      JQLiteDealoc(childNodes[i]);
    }
    element.innerHTML = value;
  }
}, function(fn, name){
  /**
   * Properties: writes return selection, reads return first value
   */
  JQLite.prototype[name] = function(arg1, arg2) {
    var i, key;

    // JQLiteHasClass has only two arguments, but is a getter-only fn, so we need to special-case it
    // in a way that survives minification.
    if (((fn.length == 2 && (fn !== JQLiteHasClass && fn !== JQLiteController)) ? arg1 : arg2) === undefined) {
      if (isObject(arg1)) {

        // we are a write, but the object properties are the key/values
        for(i=0; i < this.length; i++) {
          if (fn === JQLiteData) {
            // data() takes the whole object in jQuery
            fn(this[i], arg1);
          } else {
            for (key in arg1) {
              fn(this[i], key, arg1[key]);
            }
          }
        }
        // return self for chaining
        return this;
      } else {
        // we are a read, so read the first child.
        if (this.length)
          return fn(this[0], arg1, arg2);
      }
    } else {
      // we are a write, so apply to all children
      for(i=0; i < this.length; i++) {
        fn(this[i], arg1, arg2);
      }
      // return self for chaining
      return this;
    }
    return fn.$dv;
  };
});

function createEventHandler(element, events) {
  var eventHandler = function (event, type) {
    if (!event.preventDefault) {
      event.preventDefault = function() {
        event.returnValue = false; //ie
      };
    }

    if (!event.stopPropagation) {
      event.stopPropagation = function() {
        event.cancelBubble = true; //ie
      };
    }

    if (!event.target) {
      event.target = event.srcElement || document;
    }

    if (isUndefined(event.defaultPrevented)) {
      var prevent = event.preventDefault;
      event.preventDefault = function() {
        event.defaultPrevented = true;
        prevent.call(event);
      };
      event.defaultPrevented = false;
    }

    event.isDefaultPrevented = function() {
      return event.defaultPrevented;
    };

    forEach(events[type || event.type], function(fn) {
      fn.call(element, event);
    });

    // Remove monkey-patched methods (IE),
    // as they would cause memory leaks in IE8.
    if (msie <= 8) {
      // IE7/8 does not allow to delete property on native object
      event.preventDefault = null;
      event.stopPropagation = null;
      event.isDefaultPrevented = null;
    } else {
      // It shouldn't affect normal browsers (native methods are defined on prototype).
      delete event.preventDefault;
      delete event.stopPropagation;
      delete event.isDefaultPrevented;
    }
  };
  eventHandler.elem = element;
  return eventHandler;
}

//////////////////////////////////////////
// Functions iterating traversal.
// These functions chain results into a single
// selector.
//////////////////////////////////////////
forEach({
  removeData: JQLiteRemoveData,

  dealoc: JQLiteDealoc,

  bind: function bindFn(element, type, fn){
    var events = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'events'),
        handle = JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'handle');

    if (!events) JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'events', events = {});
    if (!handle) JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'handle', handle = createEventHandler(element, events));

    forEach(type.split(' '), function(type){
      var eventFns = events[type];

      if (!eventFns) {
        if (type == 'mouseenter' || type == 'mouseleave') {
          var contains = document.body.contains || document.body.compareDocumentPosition ?
          function( a, b ) {
            var adown = a.nodeType === 9 ? a.documentElement : a,
            bup = b && b.parentNode;
            return a === bup || !!( bup && bup.nodeType === 1 && (
              adown.contains ?
              adown.contains( bup ) :
              a.compareDocumentPosition && a.compareDocumentPosition( bup ) & 16
              ));
            } :
            function( a, b ) {
              if ( b ) {
                while ( (b = b.parentNode) ) {
                  if ( b === a ) {
                    return true;
                  }
                }
              }
              return false;
            };	

          events[type] = [];
		
		  // Refer to jQuery's implementation of mouseenter & mouseleave
          // Read about mouseenter and mouseleave:
          // http://www.quirksmode.org/js/events_mouse.html#link8
          var eventmap = { mouseleave : "mouseout", mouseenter : "mouseover"}          
          bindFn(element, eventmap[type], function(event) {
            var ret, target = this, related = event.relatedTarget;
            // For mousenter/leave call the handler if related is outside the target.
            // NB: No relatedTarget if the mouse left/entered the browser window
            if ( !related || (related !== target && !contains(target, related)) ){
              handle(event, type);
            }	

          });

        } else {
          addEventListenerFn(element, type, handle);
          events[type] = [];
        }
        eventFns = events[type]
      }
      eventFns.push(fn);
    });
  },

  unbind: JQLiteUnbind,

  replaceWith: function(element, replaceNode) {
    var index, parent = element.parentNode;
    JQLiteDealoc(element);
    forEach(new JQLite(replaceNode), function(node){
      if (index) {
        parent.insertBefore(node, index.nextSibling);
      } else {
        parent.replaceChild(node, element);
      }
      index = node;
    });
  },

  children: function(element) {
    var children = [];
    forEach(element.childNodes, function(element){
      if (element.nodeType === 1)
        children.push(element);
    });
    return children;
  },

  contents: function(element) {
    return element.childNodes || [];
  },

  append: function(element, node) {
    forEach(new JQLite(node), function(child){
      if (element.nodeType === 1)
        element.appendChild(child);
    });
  },

  prepend: function(element, node) {
    if (element.nodeType === 1) {
      var index = element.firstChild;
      forEach(new JQLite(node), function(child){
        element.insertBefore(child, index);
      });
    }
  },

  wrap: function(element, wrapNode) {
    wrapNode = jqLite(wrapNode)[0];
    var parent = element.parentNode;
    if (parent) {
      parent.replaceChild(wrapNode, element);
    }
    wrapNode.appendChild(element);
  },

  remove: function(element) {
    JQLiteDealoc(element);
    var parent = element.parentNode;
    if (parent) parent.removeChild(element);
  },

  after: function(element, newElement) {
    var index = element, parent = element.parentNode;
    forEach(new JQLite(newElement), function(node){
      parent.insertBefore(node, index.nextSibling);
      index = node;
    });
  },

  addClass: JQLiteAddClass,
  removeClass: JQLiteRemoveClass,

  toggleClass: function(element, selector, condition) {
    if (isUndefined(condition)) {
      condition = !JQLiteHasClass(element, selector);
    }
    (condition ? JQLiteAddClass : JQLiteRemoveClass)(element, selector);
  },

  parent: function(element) {
    var parent = element.parentNode;
    return parent && parent.nodeType !== 11 ? parent : null;
  },

  next: function(element) {
    if (element.nextElementSibling) {
      return element.nextElementSibling;
    }

    // IE8 doesn't have nextElementSibling
    var elm = element.nextSibling;
    while (elm != null && elm.nodeType !== 1) {
      elm = elm.nextSibling;
    }
    return elm;
  },

  find: function(element, selector) {
    return element.getElementsByTagName(selector);
  },

  clone: JQLiteClone,

  triggerHandler: function(element, eventName) {
    var eventFns = (JQLiteExpandoStore(element, 'events') || {})[eventName];

    forEach(eventFns, function(fn) {
      fn.call(element, null);
    });
  }
}, function(fn, name){
  /**
   * chaining functions
   */
  JQLite.prototype[name] = function(arg1, arg2) {
    var value;
    for(var i=0; i < this.length; i++) {
      if (value == undefined) {
        value = fn(this[i], arg1, arg2);
        if (value !== undefined) {
          // any function which returns a value needs to be wrapped
          value = jqLite(value);
        }
      } else {
        JQLiteAddNodes(value, fn(this[i], arg1, arg2));
      }
    }
    return value == undefined ? this : value;
  };
});

/**
 * Computes a hash of an 'obj'.
 * Hash of a:
 *  string is string
 *  number is number as string
 *  object is either result of calling $$hashKey function on the object or uniquely generated id,
 *         that is also assigned to the $$hashKey property of the object.
 *
 * @param obj
 * @returns {string} hash string such that the same input will have the same hash string.
 *         The resulting string key is in 'type:hashKey' format.
 */
function hashKey(obj) {
  var objType = typeof obj,
      key;

  if (objType == 'object' && obj !== null) {
    if (typeof (key = obj.$$hashKey) == 'function') {
      // must invoke on object to keep the right this
      key = obj.$$hashKey();
    } else if (key === undefined) {
      key = obj.$$hashKey = nextUid();
    }
  } else {
    key = obj;
  }

  return objType + ':' + key;
}

/**
 * HashMap which can use objects as keys
 */
function HashMap(array){
  forEach(array, this.put, this);
}
HashMap.prototype = {
  /**
   * Store key value pair
   * @param key key to store can be any type
   * @param value value to store can be any type
   */
  put: function(key, value) {
    this[hashKey(key)] = value;
  },

  /**
   * @param key
   * @returns the value for the key
   */
  get: function(key) {
    return this[hashKey(key)];
  },

  /**
   * Remove the key/value pair
   * @param key
   */
  remove: function(key) {
    var value = this[key = hashKey(key)];
    delete this[key];
    return value;
  }
};

/**
 * A map where multiple values can be added to the same key such that they form a queue.
 * @returns {HashQueueMap}
 */
function HashQueueMap() {}
HashQueueMap.prototype = {
  /**
   * Same as array push, but using an array as the value for the hash
   */
  push: function(key, value) {
    var array = this[key = hashKey(key)];
    if (!array) {
      this[key] = [value];
    } else {
      array.push(value);
    }
  },

  /**
   * Same as array shift, but using an array as the value for the hash
   */
  shift: function(key) {
    var array = this[key = hashKey(key)];
    if (array) {
      if (array.length == 1) {
        delete this[key];
        return array[0];
      } else {
        return array.shift();
      }
    }
  },

  /**
   * return the first item without deleting it
   */
  peek: function(key) {
    var array = this[hashKey(key)];
    if (array) {
    return array[0];
    }
  }
};

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name angular.injector
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Creates an injector function that can be used for retrieving services as well as for
 * dependency injection (see {@link guide/di dependency injection}).
 *

 * @param {Array.<string|Function>} modules A list of module functions or their aliases. See
 *        {@link angular.module}. The `ng` module must be explicitly added.
 * @returns {function()} Injector function. See {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}.
 *
 * @example
 * Typical usage
 * <pre>
 *   // create an injector
 *   var $injector = angular.injector(['ng']);
 *
 *   // use the injector to kick off your application
 *   // use the type inference to auto inject arguments, or use implicit injection
 *   $injector.invoke(function($rootScope, $compile, $document){
 *     $compile($document)($rootScope);
 *     $rootScope.$digest();
 *   });
 * </pre>
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc overview
 * @name AUTO
 * @description
 *
 * Implicit module which gets automatically added to each {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}.
 */

var FN_ARGS = /^function\s*[^\(]*\(\s*([^\)]*)\)/m;
var FN_ARG_SPLIT = /,/;
var FN_ARG = /^\s*(_?)(\S+?)\1\s*$/;
var STRIP_COMMENTS = /((\/\/.*$)|(\/\*[\s\S]*?\*\/))/mg;
function annotate(fn) {
  var $inject,
      fnText,
      argDecl,
      last;

  if (typeof fn == 'function') {
    if (!($inject = fn.$inject)) {
      $inject = [];
      fnText = fn.toString().replace(STRIP_COMMENTS, '');
      argDecl = fnText.match(FN_ARGS);
      forEach(argDecl[1].split(FN_ARG_SPLIT), function(arg){
        arg.replace(FN_ARG, function(all, underscore, name){
          $inject.push(name);
        });
      });
      fn.$inject = $inject;
    }
  } else if (isArray(fn)) {
    last = fn.length - 1;
    assertArgFn(fn[last], 'fn');
    $inject = fn.slice(0, last);
  } else {
    assertArgFn(fn, 'fn', true);
  }
  return $inject;
}

///////////////////////////////////////

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name AUTO.$injector
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 *
 * `$injector` is used to retrieve object instances as defined by
 * {@link AUTO.$provide provider}, instantiate types, invoke methods,
 * and load modules.
 *
 * The following always holds true:
 *
 * <pre>
 *   var $injector = angular.injector();
 *   expect($injector.get('$injector')).toBe($injector);
 *   expect($injector.invoke(function($injector){
 *     return $injector;
 *   }).toBe($injector);
 * </pre>
 *
 * # Injection Function Annotation
 *
 * JavaScript does not have annotations, and annotations are needed for dependency injection. The
 * following are all valid ways of annotating function with injection arguments and are equivalent.
 *
 * <pre>
 *   // inferred (only works if code not minified/obfuscated)
 *   $injector.invoke(function(serviceA){});
 *
 *   // annotated
 *   function explicit(serviceA) {};
 *   explicit.$inject = ['serviceA'];
 *   $injector.invoke(explicit);
 *
 *   // inline
 *   $injector.invoke(['serviceA', function(serviceA){}]);
 * </pre>
 *
 * ## Inference
 *
 * In JavaScript calling `toString()` on a function returns the function definition. The definition can then be
 * parsed and the function arguments can be extracted. *NOTE:* This does not work with minification, and obfuscation
 * tools since these tools change the argument names.
 *
 * ## `$inject` Annotation
 * By adding a `$inject` property onto a function the injection parameters can be specified.
 *
 * ## Inline
 * As an array of injection names, where the last item in the array is the function to call.
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$injector#get
 * @methodOf AUTO.$injector
 *
 * @description
 * Return an instance of the service.
 *
 * @param {string} name The name of the instance to retrieve.
 * @return {*} The instance.
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$injector#invoke
 * @methodOf AUTO.$injector
 *
 * @description
 * Invoke the method and supply the method arguments from the `$injector`.
 *
 * @param {!function} fn The function to invoke. The function arguments come form the function annotation.
 * @param {Object=} self The `this` for the invoked method.
 * @param {Object=} locals Optional object. If preset then any argument names are read from this object first, before
 *   the `$injector` is consulted.
 * @returns {*} the value returned by the invoked `fn` function.
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$injector#instantiate
 * @methodOf AUTO.$injector
 * @description
 * Create a new instance of JS type. The method takes a constructor function invokes the new operator and supplies
 * all of the arguments to the constructor function as specified by the constructor annotation.
 *
 * @param {function} Type Annotated constructor function.
 * @param {Object=} locals Optional object. If preset then any argument names are read from this object first, before
 *   the `$injector` is consulted.
 * @returns {Object} new instance of `Type`.
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$injector#annotate
 * @methodOf AUTO.$injector
 *
 * @description
 * Returns an array of service names which the function is requesting for injection. This API is used by the injector
 * to determine which services need to be injected into the function when the function is invoked. There are three
 * ways in which the function can be annotated with the needed dependencies.
 *
 * # Argument names
 *
 * The simplest form is to extract the dependencies from the arguments of the function. This is done by converting
 * the function into a string using `toString()` method and extracting the argument names.
 * <pre>
 *   // Given
 *   function MyController($scope, $route) {
 *     // ...
 *   }
 *
 *   // Then
 *   expect(injector.annotate(MyController)).toEqual(['$scope', '$route']);
 * </pre>
 *
 * This method does not work with code minfication / obfuscation. For this reason the following annotation strategies
 * are supported.
 *
 * # The `$inject` property
 *
 * If a function has an `$inject` property and its value is an array of strings, then the strings represent names of
 * services to be injected into the function.
 * <pre>
 *   // Given
 *   var MyController = function(obfuscatedScope, obfuscatedRoute) {
 *     // ...
 *   }
 *   // Define function dependencies
 *   MyController.$inject = ['$scope', '$route'];
 *
 *   // Then
 *   expect(injector.annotate(MyController)).toEqual(['$scope', '$route']);
 * </pre>
 *
 * # The array notation
 *
 * It is often desirable to inline Injected functions and that's when setting the `$inject` property is very
 * inconvenient. In these situations using the array notation to specify the dependencies in a way that survives
 * minification is a better choice:
 *
 * <pre>
 *   // We wish to write this (not minification / obfuscation safe)
 *   injector.invoke(function($compile, $rootScope) {
 *     // ...
 *   });
 *
 *   // We are forced to write break inlining
 *   var tmpFn = function(obfuscatedCompile, obfuscatedRootScope) {
 *     // ...
 *   };
 *   tmpFn.$inject = ['$compile', '$rootScope'];
 *   injector.invoke(tmpFn);
 *
 *   // To better support inline function the inline annotation is supported
 *   injector.invoke(['$compile', '$rootScope', function(obfCompile, obfRootScope) {
 *     // ...
 *   }]);
 *
 *   // Therefore
 *   expect(injector.annotate(
 *      ['$compile', '$rootScope', function(obfus_$compile, obfus_$rootScope) {}])
 *    ).toEqual(['$compile', '$rootScope']);
 * </pre>
 *
 * @param {function|Array.<string|Function>} fn Function for which dependent service names need to be retrieved as described
 *   above.
 *
 * @returns {Array.<string>} The names of the services which the function requires.
 */




/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name AUTO.$provide
 *
 * @description
 *
 * Use `$provide` to register new providers with the `$injector`. The providers are the factories for the instance.
 * The providers share the same name as the instance they create with `Provider` suffixed to them.
 *
 * A provider is an object with a `$get()` method. The injector calls the `$get` method to create a new instance of
 * a service. The Provider can have additional methods which would allow for configuration of the provider.
 *
 * <pre>
 *   function GreetProvider() {
 *     var salutation = 'Hello';
 *
 *     this.salutation = function(text) {
 *       salutation = text;
 *     };
 *
 *     this.$get = function() {
 *       return function (name) {
 *         return salutation + ' ' + name + '!';
 *       };
 *     };
 *   }
 *
 *   describe('Greeter', function(){
 *
 *     beforeEach(module(function($provide) {
 *       $provide.provider('greet', GreetProvider);
 *     }));
 *
 *     it('should greet', inject(function(greet) {
 *       expect(greet('angular')).toEqual('Hello angular!');
 *     }));
 *
 *     it('should allow configuration of salutation', function() {
 *       module(function(greetProvider) {
 *         greetProvider.salutation('Ahoj');
 *       });
 *       inject(function(greet) {
 *         expect(greet('angular')).toEqual('Ahoj angular!');
 *       });
 *     });
 * </pre>
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$provide#provider
 * @methodOf AUTO.$provide
 * @description
 *
 * Register a provider for a service. The providers can be retrieved and can have additional configuration methods.
 *
 * @param {string} name The name of the instance. NOTE: the provider will be available under `name + 'Provider'` key.
 * @param {(Object|function())} provider If the provider is:
 *
 *   - `Object`: then it should have a `$get` method. The `$get` method will be invoked using
 *               {@link AUTO.$injector#invoke $injector.invoke()} when an instance needs to be created.
 *   - `Constructor`: a new instance of the provider will be created using
 *               {@link AUTO.$injector#instantiate $injector.instantiate()}, then treated as `object`.
 *
 * @returns {Object} registered provider instance
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$provide#factory
 * @methodOf AUTO.$provide
 * @description
 *
 * A short hand for configuring services if only `$get` method is required.
 *
 * @param {string} name The name of the instance.
 * @param {function()} $getFn The $getFn for the instance creation. Internally this is a short hand for
 * `$provide.provider(name, {$get: $getFn})`.
 * @returns {Object} registered provider instance
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$provide#service
 * @methodOf AUTO.$provide
 * @description
 *
 * A short hand for registering service of given class.
 *
 * @param {string} name The name of the instance.
 * @param {Function} constructor A class (constructor function) that will be instantiated.
 * @returns {Object} registered provider instance
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$provide#value
 * @methodOf AUTO.$provide
 * @description
 *
 * A short hand for configuring services if the `$get` method is a constant.
 *
 * @param {string} name The name of the instance.
 * @param {*} value The value.
 * @returns {Object} registered provider instance
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$provide#constant
 * @methodOf AUTO.$provide
 * @description
 *
 * A constant value, but unlike {@link AUTO.$provide#value value} it can be injected
 * into configuration function (other modules) and it is not interceptable by
 * {@link AUTO.$provide#decorator decorator}.
 *
 * @param {string} name The name of the constant.
 * @param {*} value The constant value.
 * @returns {Object} registered instance
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name AUTO.$provide#decorator
 * @methodOf AUTO.$provide
 * @description
 *
 * Decoration of service, allows the decorator to intercept the service instance creation. The
 * returned instance may be the original instance, or a new instance which delegates to the
 * original instance.
 *
 * @param {string} name The name of the service to decorate.
 * @param {function()} decorator This function will be invoked when the service needs to be
 *    instantiated. The function is called using the {@link AUTO.$injector#invoke
 *    injector.invoke} method and is therefore fully injectable. Local injection arguments:
 *
 *    * `$delegate` - The original service instance, which can be monkey patched, configured,
 *      decorated or delegated to.
 */


function createInjector(modulesToLoad) {
  var INSTANTIATING = {},
      providerSuffix = 'Provider',
      path = [],
      loadedModules = new HashMap(),
      providerCache = {
        $provide: {
            provider: supportObject(provider),
            factory: supportObject(factory),
            service: supportObject(service),
            value: supportObject(value),
            constant: supportObject(constant),
            decorator: decorator
          }
      },
      providerInjector = createInternalInjector(providerCache, function() {
        throw Error("Unknown provider: " + path.join(' <- '));
      }),
      instanceCache = {},
      instanceInjector = (instanceCache.$injector =
          createInternalInjector(instanceCache, function(servicename) {
            var provider = providerInjector.get(servicename + providerSuffix);
            return instanceInjector.invoke(provider.$get, provider);
          }));


  forEach(loadModules(modulesToLoad), function(fn) { instanceInjector.invoke(fn || noop); });

  return instanceInjector;

  ////////////////////////////////////
  // $provider
  ////////////////////////////////////

  function supportObject(delegate) {
    return function(key, value) {
      if (isObject(key)) {
        forEach(key, reverseParams(delegate));
      } else {
        return delegate(key, value);
      }
    }
  }

  function provider(name, provider_) {
    if (isFunction(provider_) || isArray(provider_)) {
      provider_ = providerInjector.instantiate(provider_);
    }
    if (!provider_.$get) {
      throw Error('Provider ' + name + ' must define $get factory method.');
    }
    return providerCache[name + providerSuffix] = provider_;
  }

  function factory(name, factoryFn) { return provider(name, { $get: factoryFn }); }

  function service(name, constructor) {
    return factory(name, ['$injector', function($injector) {
      return $injector.instantiate(constructor);
    }]);
  }

  function value(name, value) { return factory(name, valueFn(value)); }

  function constant(name, value) {
    providerCache[name] = value;
    instanceCache[name] = value;
  }

  function decorator(serviceName, decorFn) {
    var origProvider = providerInjector.get(serviceName + providerSuffix),
        orig$get = origProvider.$get;

    origProvider.$get = function() {
      var origInstance = instanceInjector.invoke(orig$get, origProvider);
      return instanceInjector.invoke(decorFn, null, {$delegate: origInstance});
    };
  }

  ////////////////////////////////////
  // Module Loading
  ////////////////////////////////////
  function loadModules(modulesToLoad){
    var runBlocks = [];
    forEach(modulesToLoad, function(module) {
      if (loadedModules.get(module)) return;
      loadedModules.put(module, true);
      if (isString(module)) {
        var moduleFn = angularModule(module);
        runBlocks = runBlocks.concat(loadModules(moduleFn.requires)).concat(moduleFn._runBlocks);

        try {
          for(var invokeQueue = moduleFn._invokeQueue, i = 0, ii = invokeQueue.length; i < ii; i++) {
            var invokeArgs = invokeQueue[i],
                provider = invokeArgs[0] == '$injector'
                    ? providerInjector
                    : providerInjector.get(invokeArgs[0]);

            provider[invokeArgs[1]].apply(provider, invokeArgs[2]);
          }
        } catch (e) {
          if (e.message) e.message += ' from ' + module;
          throw e;
        }
      } else if (isFunction(module)) {
        try {
          runBlocks.push(providerInjector.invoke(module));
        } catch (e) {
          if (e.message) e.message += ' from ' + module;
          throw e;
        }
      } else if (isArray(module)) {
        try {
          runBlocks.push(providerInjector.invoke(module));
        } catch (e) {
          if (e.message) e.message += ' from ' + String(module[module.length - 1]);
          throw e;
        }
      } else {
        assertArgFn(module, 'module');
      }
    });
    return runBlocks;
  }

  ////////////////////////////////////
  // internal Injector
  ////////////////////////////////////

  function createInternalInjector(cache, factory) {

    function getService(serviceName) {
      if (typeof serviceName !== 'string') {
        throw Error('Service name expected');
      }
      if (cache.hasOwnProperty(serviceName)) {
        if (cache[serviceName] === INSTANTIATING) {
          throw Error('Circular dependency: ' + path.join(' <- '));
        }
        return cache[serviceName];
      } else {
        try {
          path.unshift(serviceName);
          cache[serviceName] = INSTANTIATING;
          return cache[serviceName] = factory(serviceName);
        } finally {
          path.shift();
        }
      }
    }

    function invoke(fn, self, locals){
      var args = [],
          $inject = annotate(fn),
          length, i,
          key;

      for(i = 0, length = $inject.length; i < length; i++) {
        key = $inject[i];
        args.push(
          locals && locals.hasOwnProperty(key)
          ? locals[key]
          : getService(key)
        );
      }
      if (!fn.$inject) {
        // this means that we must be an array.
        fn = fn[length];
      }


      // Performance optimization: http://jsperf.com/apply-vs-call-vs-invoke
      switch (self ? -1 : args.length) {
        case  0: return fn();
        case  1: return fn(args[0]);
        case  2: return fn(args[0], args[1]);
        case  3: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2]);
        case  4: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3]);
        case  5: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4]);
        case  6: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5]);
        case  7: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5], args[6]);
        case  8: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5], args[6], args[7]);
        case  9: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5], args[6], args[7], args[8]);
        case 10: return fn(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4], args[5], args[6], args[7], args[8], args[9]);
        default: return fn.apply(self, args);
      }
    }

    function instantiate(Type, locals) {
      var Constructor = function() {},
          instance, returnedValue;

      // Check if Type is annotated and use just the given function at n-1 as parameter
      // e.g. someModule.factory('greeter', ['$window', function(renamed$window) {}]);
      Constructor.prototype = (isArray(Type) ? Type[Type.length - 1] : Type).prototype;
      instance = new Constructor();
      returnedValue = invoke(Type, instance, locals);

      return isObject(returnedValue) ? returnedValue : instance;
    }

    return {
      invoke: invoke,
      instantiate: instantiate,
      get: getService,
      annotate: annotate
    };
  }
}

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.$anchorScroll
 * @requires $window
 * @requires $location
 * @requires $rootScope
 *
 * @description
 * When called, it checks current value of `$location.hash()` and scroll to related element,
 * according to rules specified in
 * {@link http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#the-indicated-part-of-the-document Html5 spec}.
 *
 * It also watches the `$location.hash()` and scroll whenever it changes to match any anchor.
 * This can be disabled by calling `$anchorScrollProvider.disableAutoScrolling()`.
 */
function $AnchorScrollProvider() {

  var autoScrollingEnabled = true;

  this.disableAutoScrolling = function() {
    autoScrollingEnabled = false;
  };

  this.$get = ['$window', '$location', '$rootScope', function($window, $location, $rootScope) {
    var document = $window.document;

    // helper function to get first anchor from a NodeList
    // can't use filter.filter, as it accepts only instances of Array
    // and IE can't convert NodeList to an array using [].slice
    // TODO(vojta): use filter if we change it to accept lists as well
    function getFirstAnchor(list) {
      var result = null;
      forEach(list, function(element) {
        if (!result && lowercase(element.nodeName) === 'a') result = element;
      });
      return result;
    }

    function scroll() {
      var hash = $location.hash(), elm;

      // empty hash, scroll to the top of the page
      if (!hash) $window.scrollTo(0, 0);

      // element with given id
      else if ((elm = document.getElementById(hash))) elm.scrollIntoView();

      // first anchor with given name :-D
      else if ((elm = getFirstAnchor(document.getElementsByName(hash)))) elm.scrollIntoView();

      // no element and hash == 'top', scroll to the top of the page
      else if (hash === 'top') $window.scrollTo(0, 0);
    }

    // does not scroll when user clicks on anchor link that is currently on
    // (no url change, no $location.hash() change), browser native does scroll
    if (autoScrollingEnabled) {
      $rootScope.$watch(function autoScrollWatch() {return $location.hash();},
        function autoScrollWatchAction() {
          $rootScope.$evalAsync(scroll);
        });
    }

    return scroll;
  }];
}

/**
 * ! This is a private undocumented service !
 *
 * @name ng.$browser
 * @requires $log
 * @description
 * This object has two goals:
 *
 * - hide all the global state in the browser caused by the window object
 * - abstract away all the browser specific features and inconsistencies
 *
 * For tests we provide {@link ngMock.$browser mock implementation} of the `$browser`
 * service, which can be used for convenient testing of the application without the interaction with
 * the real browser apis.
 */
/**
 * @param {object} window The global window object.
 * @param {object} document jQuery wrapped document.
 * @param {function()} XHR XMLHttpRequest constructor.
 * @param {object} $log console.log or an object with the same interface.
 * @param {object} $sniffer $sniffer service
 */
function Browser(window, document, $log, $sniffer) {
  var self = this,
      rawDocument = document[0],
      location = window.location,
      history = window.history,
      setTimeout = window.setTimeout,
      clearTimeout = window.clearTimeout,
      pendingDeferIds = {};

  self.isMock = false;

  var outstandingRequestCount = 0;
  var outstandingRequestCallbacks = [];

  // TODO(vojta): remove this temporary api
  self.$$completeOutstandingRequest = completeOutstandingRequest;
  self.$$incOutstandingRequestCount = function() { outstandingRequestCount++; };

  /**
   * Executes the `fn` function(supports currying) and decrements the `outstandingRequestCallbacks`
   * counter. If the counter reaches 0, all the `outstandingRequestCallbacks` are executed.
   */
  function completeOutstandingRequest(fn) {
    try {
      fn.apply(null, sliceArgs(arguments, 1));
    } finally {
      outstandingRequestCount--;
      if (outstandingRequestCount === 0) {
        while(outstandingRequestCallbacks.length) {
          try {
            outstandingRequestCallbacks.pop()();
          } catch (e) {
            $log.error(e);
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * @private
   * Note: this method is used only by scenario runner
   * TODO(vojta): prefix this method with $$ ?
   * @param {function()} callback Function that will be called when no outstanding request
   */
  self.notifyWhenNoOutstandingRequests = function(callback) {
    // force browser to execute all pollFns - this is needed so that cookies and other pollers fire
    // at some deterministic time in respect to the test runner's actions. Leaving things up to the
    // regular poller would result in flaky tests.
    forEach(pollFns, function(pollFn){ pollFn(); });

    if (outstandingRequestCount === 0) {
      callback();
    } else {
      outstandingRequestCallbacks.push(callback);
    }
  };

  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Poll Watcher API
  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  var pollFns = [],
      pollTimeout;

  /**
   * @name ng.$browser#addPollFn
   * @methodOf ng.$browser
   *
   * @param {function()} fn Poll function to add
   *
   * @description
   * Adds a function to the list of functions that poller periodically executes,
   * and starts polling if not started yet.
   *
   * @returns {function()} the added function
   */
  self.addPollFn = function(fn) {
    if (isUndefined(pollTimeout)) startPoller(100, setTimeout);
    pollFns.push(fn);
    return fn;
  };

  /**
   * @param {number} interval How often should browser call poll functions (ms)
   * @param {function()} setTimeout Reference to a real or fake `setTimeout` function.
   *
   * @description
   * Configures the poller to run in the specified intervals, using the specified
   * setTimeout fn and kicks it off.
   */
  function startPoller(interval, setTimeout) {
    (function check() {
      forEach(pollFns, function(pollFn){ pollFn(); });
      pollTimeout = setTimeout(check, interval);
    })();
  }

  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  // URL API
  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  var lastBrowserUrl = location.href,
      baseElement = document.find('base'),
      replacedUrl = null;

  /**
   * @name ng.$browser#url
   * @methodOf ng.$browser
   *
   * @description
   * GETTER:
   * Without any argument, this method just returns current value of location.href.
   *
   * SETTER:
   * With at least one argument, this method sets url to new value.
   * If html5 history api supported, pushState/replaceState is used, otherwise
   * location.href/location.replace is used.
   * Returns its own instance to allow chaining
   *
   * NOTE: this api is intended for use only by the $location service. Please use the
   * {@link ng.$location $location service} to change url.
   *
   * @param {string} url New url (when used as setter)
   * @param {boolean=} replace Should new url replace current history record ?
   */
  self.url = function(url, replace) {
    // setter
    if (url) {
      if (lastBrowserUrl == url) return;
      lastBrowserUrl = url;
      if ($sniffer.history) {
        if (replace) history.replaceState(null, '', url);
        else {
          history.pushState(null, '', url);
          // Crazy Opera Bug: http://my.opera.com/community/forums/topic.dml?id=1185462
          baseElement.attr('href', baseElement.attr('href'));
        }
      } else {
        if (replace) {
          location.replace(url);
          replacedUrl = url;
        } else {
          location.href = url;
          replacedUrl = null;
        }
      }
      return self;
    // getter
    } else {
      // - the replacedUrl is a workaround for an IE8-9 issue with location.replace method that doesn't update
      //   location.href synchronously
      // - the replacement is a workaround for https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=407172
      return replacedUrl || location.href.replace(/%27/g,"'");
    }
  };

  var urlChangeListeners = [],
      urlChangeInit = false;

  function fireUrlChange() {
    if (lastBrowserUrl == self.url()) return;

    lastBrowserUrl = self.url();
    forEach(urlChangeListeners, function(listener) {
      listener(self.url());
    });
  }

  /**
   * @name ng.$browser#onUrlChange
   * @methodOf ng.$browser
   * @TODO(vojta): refactor to use node's syntax for events
   *
   * @description
   * Register callback function that will be called, when url changes.
   *
   * It's only called when the url is changed by outside of angular:
   * - user types different url into address bar
   * - user clicks on history (forward/back) button
   * - user clicks on a link
   *
   * It's not called when url is changed by $browser.url() method
   *
   * The listener gets called with new url as parameter.
   *
   * NOTE: this api is intended for use only by the $location service. Please use the
   * {@link ng.$location $location service} to monitor url changes in angular apps.
   *
   * @param {function(string)} listener Listener function to be called when url changes.
   * @return {function(string)} Returns the registered listener fn - handy if the fn is anonymous.
   */
  self.onUrlChange = function(callback) {
    if (!urlChangeInit) {
      // We listen on both (hashchange/popstate) when available, as some browsers (e.g. Opera)
      // don't fire popstate when user change the address bar and don't fire hashchange when url
      // changed by push/replaceState

      // html5 history api - popstate event
      if ($sniffer.history) jqLite(window).bind('popstate', fireUrlChange);
      // hashchange event
      if ($sniffer.hashchange) jqLite(window).bind('hashchange', fireUrlChange);
      // polling
      else self.addPollFn(fireUrlChange);

      urlChangeInit = true;
    }

    urlChangeListeners.push(callback);
    return callback;
  };

  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Misc API
  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  /**
   * Returns current <base href>
   * (always relative - without domain)
   *
   * @returns {string=}
   */
  self.baseHref = function() {
    var href = baseElement.attr('href');
    return href ? href.replace(/^https?\:\/\/[^\/]*/, '') : '';
  };

  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  // Cookies API
  //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  var lastCookies = {};
  var lastCookieString = '';
  var cookiePath = self.baseHref();

  /**
   * @name ng.$browser#cookies
   * @methodOf ng.$browser
   *
   * @param {string=} name Cookie name
   * @param {string=} value Cokkie value
   *
   * @description
   * The cookies method provides a 'private' low level access to browser cookies.
   * It is not meant to be used directly, use the $cookie service instead.
   *
   * The return values vary depending on the arguments that the method was called with as follows:
   * <ul>
   *   <li>cookies() -> hash of all cookies, this is NOT a copy of the internal state, so do not modify it</li>
   *   <li>cookies(name, value) -> set name to value, if value is undefined delete the cookie</li>
   *   <li>cookies(name) -> the same as (name, undefined) == DELETES (no one calls it right now that way)</li>
   * </ul>
   *
   * @returns {Object} Hash of all cookies (if called without any parameter)
   */
  self.cookies = function(name, value) {
    var cookieLength, cookieArray, cookie, i, index;

    if (name) {
      if (value === undefined) {
        rawDocument.cookie = escape(name) + "=;path=" + cookiePath + ";expires=Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 GMT";
      } else {
        if (isString(value)) {
          cookieLength = (rawDocument.cookie = escape(name) + '=' + escape(value) + ';path=' + cookiePath).length + 1;

          // per http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2109.txt browser must allow at minimum:
          // - 300 cookies
          // - 20 cookies per unique domain
          // - 4096 bytes per cookie
          if (cookieLength > 4096) {
            $log.warn("Cookie '"+ name +"' possibly not set or overflowed because it was too large ("+
              cookieLength + " > 4096 bytes)!");
          }
        }
      }
    } else {
      if (rawDocument.cookie !== lastCookieString) {
        lastCookieString = rawDocument.cookie;
        cookieArray = lastCookieString.split("; ");
        lastCookies = {};

        for (i = 0; i < cookieArray.length; i++) {
          cookie = cookieArray[i];
          index = cookie.indexOf('=');
          if (index > 0) { //ignore nameless cookies
            var name = unescape(cookie.substring(0, index));
            // the first value that is seen for a cookie is the most
            // specific one.  values for the same cookie name that
            // follow are for less specific paths.
            if (lastCookies[name] === undefined) {
              lastCookies[name] = unescape(cookie.substring(index + 1));
            }
          }
        }
      }
      return lastCookies;
    }
  };


  /**
   * @name ng.$browser#defer
   * @methodOf ng.$browser
   * @param {function()} fn A function, who's execution should be defered.
   * @param {number=} [delay=0] of milliseconds to defer the function execution.
   * @returns {*} DeferId that can be used to cancel the task via `$browser.defer.cancel()`.
   *
   * @description
   * Executes a fn asynchroniously via `setTimeout(fn, delay)`.
   *
   * Unlike when calling `setTimeout` directly, in test this function is mocked and instead of using
   * `setTimeout` in tests, the fns are queued in an array, which can be programmatically flushed
   * via `$browser.defer.flush()`.
   *
   */
  self.defer = function(fn, delay) {
    var timeoutId;
    outstandingRequestCount++;
    timeoutId = setTimeout(function() {
      delete pendingDeferIds[timeoutId];
      completeOutstandingRequest(fn);
    }, delay || 0);
    pendingDeferIds[timeoutId] = true;
    return timeoutId;
  };


  /**
   * @name ng.$browser#defer.cancel
   * @methodOf ng.$browser.defer
   *
   * @description
   * Cancels a defered task identified with `deferId`.
   *
   * @param {*} deferId Token returned by the `$browser.defer` function.
   * @returns {boolean} Returns `true` if the task hasn't executed yet and was successfuly canceled.
   */
  self.defer.cancel = function(deferId) {
    if (pendingDeferIds[deferId]) {
      delete pendingDeferIds[deferId];
      clearTimeout(deferId);
      completeOutstandingRequest(noop);
      return true;
    }
    return false;
  };

}

function $BrowserProvider(){
  this.$get = ['$window', '$log', '$sniffer', '$document',
      function( $window,   $log,   $sniffer,   $document){
        return new Browser($window, $document, $log, $sniffer);
      }];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$cacheFactory
 *
 * @description
 * Factory that constructs cache objects and gives access to them.
 * 
 * <pre>
 * 
 *  var cache = $cacheFactory('cacheId');
 *  expect($cacheFactory.get('cacheId')).toBe(cache);
 *  expect($cacheFactory.get('noSuchCacheId')).not.toBeDefined();
 *
 *  cache.put("key", "value");
 *  cache.put("another key", "another value");
 * 
 *  expect(cache.info()).toEqual({id: 'cacheId', size: 2}); // Since we've specified no options on creation
 * 
 * </pre>
 *
 *
 * @param {string} cacheId Name or id of the newly created cache.
 * @param {object=} options Options object that specifies the cache behavior. Properties:
 *
 *   - `{number=}` `capacity` — turns the cache into LRU cache.
 *
 * @returns {object} Newly created cache object with the following set of methods:
 *
 * - `{object}` `info()` — Returns id, size, and options of cache.
 * - `{void}` `put({string} key, {*} value)` — Puts a new key-value pair into the cache.
 * - `{{*}}` `get({string} key)` — Returns cached value for `key` or undefined for cache miss.
 * - `{void}` `remove({string} key)` — Removes a key-value pair from the cache.
 * - `{void}` `removeAll()` — Removes all cached values.
 * - `{void}` `destroy()` — Removes references to this cache from $cacheFactory.
 *
 */
function $CacheFactoryProvider() {

  this.$get = function() {
    var caches = {};

    function cacheFactory(cacheId, options) {
      if (cacheId in caches) {
        throw Error('cacheId ' + cacheId + ' taken');
      }

      var size = 0,
          stats = extend({}, options, {id: cacheId}),
          data = {},
          capacity = (options && options.capacity) || Number.MAX_VALUE,
          lruHash = {},
          freshEnd = null,
          staleEnd = null;

      return caches[cacheId] = {

        put: function(key, value) {
          var lruEntry = lruHash[key] || (lruHash[key] = {key: key});

          refresh(lruEntry);

          if (isUndefined(value)) return;
          if (!(key in data)) size++;
          data[key] = value;

          if (size > capacity) {
            this.remove(staleEnd.key);
          }
        },


        get: function(key) {
          var lruEntry = lruHash[key];

          if (!lruEntry) return;

          refresh(lruEntry);

          return data[key];
        },


        remove: function(key) {
          var lruEntry = lruHash[key];

          if (!lruEntry) return;

          if (lruEntry == freshEnd) freshEnd = lruEntry.p;
          if (lruEntry == staleEnd) staleEnd = lruEntry.n;
          link(lruEntry.n,lruEntry.p);

          delete lruHash[key];
          delete data[key];
          size--;
        },


        removeAll: function() {
          data = {};
          size = 0;
          lruHash = {};
          freshEnd = staleEnd = null;
        },


        destroy: function() {
          data = null;
          stats = null;
          lruHash = null;
          delete caches[cacheId];
        },


        info: function() {
          return extend({}, stats, {size: size});
        }
      };


      /**
       * makes the `entry` the freshEnd of the LRU linked list
       */
      function refresh(entry) {
        if (entry != freshEnd) {
          if (!staleEnd) {
            staleEnd = entry;
          } else if (staleEnd == entry) {
            staleEnd = entry.n;
          }

          link(entry.n, entry.p);
          link(entry, freshEnd);
          freshEnd = entry;
          freshEnd.n = null;
        }
      }


      /**
       * bidirectionally links two entries of the LRU linked list
       */
      function link(nextEntry, prevEntry) {
        if (nextEntry != prevEntry) {
          if (nextEntry) nextEntry.p = prevEntry; //p stands for previous, 'prev' didn't minify
          if (prevEntry) prevEntry.n = nextEntry; //n stands for next, 'next' didn't minify
        }
      }
    }


  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$cacheFactory#info
   * @methodOf ng.$cacheFactory
   *
   * @description
   * Get information about all the of the caches that have been created
   *
   * @returns {Object} - key-value map of `cacheId` to the result of calling `cache#info`
   */
    cacheFactory.info = function() {
      var info = {};
      forEach(caches, function(cache, cacheId) {
        info[cacheId] = cache.info();
      });
      return info;
    };


  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$cacheFactory#get
   * @methodOf ng.$cacheFactory
   *
   * @description
   * Get access to a cache object by the `cacheId` used when it was created.
   *
   * @param {string} cacheId Name or id of a cache to access.
   * @returns {object} Cache object identified by the cacheId or undefined if no such cache.
   */
    cacheFactory.get = function(cacheId) {
      return caches[cacheId];
    };


    return cacheFactory;
  };
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$templateCache
 *
 * @description
 * The first time a template is used, it is loaded in the template cache for quick retrieval.  You can 
 * load templates directly into the cache in a `script` tag, or by consuming the `$templateCache` 
 * service directly.
 * 
 * Adding via the `script` tag:
 * <pre>
 * <html ng-app>
 * <head>
 * <script type="text/ng-template" id="templateId.html">
 *   This is the content of the template
 * </script>
 * </head>
 *   ...
 * </html>
 * </pre>
 * 
 * **Note:** the `script` tag containing the template does not need to be included in the `head` of the document, but 
 * it must be below the `ng-app` definition.
 * 
 * Adding via the $templateCache service:
 * 
 * <pre>
 * var myApp = angular.module('myApp', []);
 * myApp.run(function($templateCache) {
 *   $templateCache.put('templateId.html', 'This is the content of the template');
 * });
 * </pre>
 * 
 * To retrieve the template later, simply use it in your HTML:
 * <pre>
 * <div ng-include=" 'templateId.html' "></div>
 * </pre>
 * 
 * or get it via Javascript:
 * <pre>
 * $templateCache.get('templateId.html')
 * </pre>
 * 
 * See {@link ng.$cacheFactory $cacheFactory}.
 *
 */
function $TemplateCacheProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$cacheFactory', function($cacheFactory) {
    return $cacheFactory('templates');
  }];
}

/* ! VARIABLE/FUNCTION NAMING CONVENTIONS THAT APPLY TO THIS FILE!
 *
 * DOM-related variables:
 *
 * - "node" - DOM Node
 * - "element" - DOM Element or Node
 * - "$node" or "$element" - jqLite-wrapped node or element
 *
 *
 * Compiler related stuff:
 *
 * - "linkFn" - linking fn of a single directive
 * - "nodeLinkFn" - function that aggregates all linking fns for a particular node
 * - "childLinkFn" -  function that aggregates all linking fns for child nodes of a particular node
 * - "compositeLinkFn" - function that aggregates all linking fns for a compilation root (nodeList)
 */


var NON_ASSIGNABLE_MODEL_EXPRESSION = 'Non-assignable model expression: ';


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.$compile
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Compiles a piece of HTML string or DOM into a template and produces a template function, which
 * can then be used to link {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope scope} and the template together.
 *
 * The compilation is a process of walking the DOM tree and trying to match DOM elements to
 * {@link ng.$compileProvider#directive directives}. For each match it
 * executes corresponding template function and collects the
 * instance functions into a single template function which is then returned.
 *
 * The template function can then be used once to produce the view or as it is the case with
 * {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat repeater} many-times, in which
 * case each call results in a view that is a DOM clone of the original template.
 *
 <doc:example module="compile">
   <doc:source>
    <script>
      // declare a new module, and inject the $compileProvider
      angular.module('compile', [], function($compileProvider) {
        // configure new 'compile' directive by passing a directive
        // factory function. The factory function injects the '$compile'
        $compileProvider.directive('compile', function($compile) {
          // directive factory creates a link function
          return function(scope, element, attrs) {
            scope.$watch(
              function(scope) {
                 // watch the 'compile' expression for changes
                return scope.$eval(attrs.compile);
              },
              function(value) {
                // when the 'compile' expression changes
                // assign it into the current DOM
                element.html(value);

                // compile the new DOM and link it to the current
                // scope.
                // NOTE: we only compile .childNodes so that
                // we don't get into infinite loop compiling ourselves
                $compile(element.contents())(scope);
              }
            );
          };
        })
      });

      function Ctrl($scope) {
        $scope.name = 'Angular';
        $scope.html = 'Hello {{name}}';
      }
    </script>
    <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
      <input ng-model="name"> <br>
      <textarea ng-model="html"></textarea> <br>
      <div compile="html"></div>
    </div>
   </doc:source>
   <doc:scenario>
     it('should auto compile', function() {
       expect(element('div[compile]').text()).toBe('Hello Angular');
       input('html').enter('{{name}}!');
       expect(element('div[compile]').text()).toBe('Angular!');
     });
   </doc:scenario>
 </doc:example>

 *
 *
 * @param {string|DOMElement} element Element or HTML string to compile into a template function.
 * @param {function(angular.Scope[, cloneAttachFn]} transclude function available to directives.
 * @param {number} maxPriority only apply directives lower then given priority (Only effects the
 *                 root element(s), not their children)
 * @returns {function(scope[, cloneAttachFn])} a link function which is used to bind template
 * (a DOM element/tree) to a scope. Where:
 *
 *  * `scope` - A {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope Scope} to bind to.
 *  * `cloneAttachFn` - If `cloneAttachFn` is provided, then the link function will clone the
 *               `template` and call the `cloneAttachFn` function allowing the caller to attach the
 *               cloned elements to the DOM document at the appropriate place. The `cloneAttachFn` is
 *               called as: <br> `cloneAttachFn(clonedElement, scope)` where:
 *
 *      * `clonedElement` - is a clone of the original `element` passed into the compiler.
 *      * `scope` - is the current scope with which the linking function is working with.
 *
 * Calling the linking function returns the element of the template. It is either the original element
 * passed in, or the clone of the element if the `cloneAttachFn` is provided.
 *
 * After linking the view is not updated until after a call to $digest which typically is done by
 * Angular automatically.
 *
 * If you need access to the bound view, there are two ways to do it:
 *
 * - If you are not asking the linking function to clone the template, create the DOM element(s)
 *   before you send them to the compiler and keep this reference around.
 *   <pre>
 *     var element = $compile('<p>{{total}}</p>')(scope);
 *   </pre>
 *
 * - if on the other hand, you need the element to be cloned, the view reference from the original
 *   example would not point to the clone, but rather to the original template that was cloned. In
 *   this case, you can access the clone via the cloneAttachFn:
 *   <pre>
 *     var templateHTML = angular.element('<p>{{total}}</p>'),
 *         scope = ....;
 *
 *     var clonedElement = $compile(templateHTML)(scope, function(clonedElement, scope) {
 *       //attach the clone to DOM document at the right place
 *     });
 *
 *     //now we have reference to the cloned DOM via `clone`
 *   </pre>
 *
 *
 * For information on how the compiler works, see the
 * {@link guide/compiler Angular HTML Compiler} section of the Developer Guide.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc service
 * @name ng.$compileProvider
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 */
$CompileProvider.$inject = ['$provide'];
function $CompileProvider($provide) {
  var hasDirectives = {},
      Suffix = 'Directive',
      COMMENT_DIRECTIVE_REGEXP = /^\s*directive\:\s*([\d\w\-_]+)\s+(.*)$/,
      CLASS_DIRECTIVE_REGEXP = /(([\d\w\-_]+)(?:\:([^;]+))?;?)/,
      MULTI_ROOT_TEMPLATE_ERROR = 'Template must have exactly one root element. was: ',
      urlSanitizationWhitelist = /^\s*(https?|ftp|mailto|file):/;


  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.$compileProvider#directive
   * @methodOf ng.$compileProvider
   * @function
   *
   * @description
   * Register a new directive with the compiler.
   *
   * @param {string} name Name of the directive in camel-case. (ie <code>ngBind</code> which will match as
   *                <code>ng-bind</code>).
   * @param {function|Array} directiveFactory An injectable directive factory function. See {@link guide/directive} for more
   *                info.
   * @returns {ng.$compileProvider} Self for chaining.
   */
   this.directive = function registerDirective(name, directiveFactory) {
    if (isString(name)) {
      assertArg(directiveFactory, 'directive');
      if (!hasDirectives.hasOwnProperty(name)) {
        hasDirectives[name] = [];
        $provide.factory(name + Suffix, ['$injector', '$exceptionHandler',
          function($injector, $exceptionHandler) {
            var directives = [];
            forEach(hasDirectives[name], function(directiveFactory) {
              try {
                var directive = $injector.invoke(directiveFactory);
                if (isFunction(directive)) {
                  directive = { compile: valueFn(directive) };
                } else if (!directive.compile && directive.link) {
                  directive.compile = valueFn(directive.link);
                }
                directive.priority = directive.priority || 0;
                directive.name = directive.name || name;
                directive.require = directive.require || (directive.controller && directive.name);
                directive.restrict = directive.restrict || 'A';
                directives.push(directive);
              } catch (e) {
                $exceptionHandler(e);
              }
            });
            return directives;
          }]);
      }
      hasDirectives[name].push(directiveFactory);
    } else {
      forEach(name, reverseParams(registerDirective));
    }
    return this;
  };


  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.$compileProvider#urlSanitizationWhitelist
   * @methodOf ng.$compileProvider
   * @function
   *
   * @description
   * Retrieves or overrides the default regular expression that is used for whitelisting of safe
   * urls during a[href] sanitization.
   *
   * The sanitization is a security measure aimed at prevent XSS attacks via html links.
   *
   * Any url about to be assigned to a[href] via data-binding is first normalized and turned into an
   * absolute url. Afterwards the url is matched against the `urlSanitizationWhitelist` regular
   * expression. If a match is found the original url is written into the dom. Otherwise the
   * absolute url is prefixed with `'unsafe:'` string and only then it is written into the DOM.
   *
   * @param {RegExp=} regexp New regexp to whitelist urls with.
   * @returns {RegExp|ng.$compileProvider} Current RegExp if called without value or self for
   *    chaining otherwise.
   */
  this.urlSanitizationWhitelist = function(regexp) {
    if (isDefined(regexp)) {
      urlSanitizationWhitelist = regexp;
      return this;
    }
    return urlSanitizationWhitelist;
  };


  this.$get = [
            '$injector', '$interpolate', '$exceptionHandler', '$http', '$templateCache', '$parse',
            '$controller', '$rootScope', '$document',
    function($injector,   $interpolate,   $exceptionHandler,   $http,   $templateCache,   $parse,
             $controller,   $rootScope,   $document) {

    var Attributes = function(element, attr) {
      this.$$element = element;
      this.$attr = attr || {};
    };

    Attributes.prototype = {
      $normalize: directiveNormalize,


      /**
       * Set a normalized attribute on the element in a way such that all directives
       * can share the attribute. This function properly handles boolean attributes.
       * @param {string} key Normalized key. (ie ngAttribute)
       * @param {string|boolean} value The value to set. If `null` attribute will be deleted.
       * @param {boolean=} writeAttr If false, does not write the value to DOM element attribute.
       *     Defaults to true.
       * @param {string=} attrName Optional none normalized name. Defaults to key.
       */
      $set: function(key, value, writeAttr, attrName) {
        var booleanKey = getBooleanAttrName(this.$$element[0], key),
            $$observers = this.$$observers,
            normalizedVal;

        if (booleanKey) {
          this.$$element.prop(key, value);
          attrName = booleanKey;
        }

        this[key] = value;

        // translate normalized key to actual key
        if (attrName) {
          this.$attr[key] = attrName;
        } else {
          attrName = this.$attr[key];
          if (!attrName) {
            this.$attr[key] = attrName = snake_case(key, '-');
          }
        }


        // sanitize a[href] values
        if (nodeName_(this.$$element[0]) === 'A' && key === 'href') {
          urlSanitizationNode.setAttribute('href', value);

          // href property always returns normalized absolute url, so we can match against that
          normalizedVal = urlSanitizationNode.href;
          if (normalizedVal !== '' && !normalizedVal.match(urlSanitizationWhitelist)) {
            this[key] = value = 'unsafe:' + normalizedVal;
          }
        }


        if (writeAttr !== false) {
          if (value === null || value === undefined) {
            this.$$element.removeAttr(attrName);
          } else {
            this.$$element.attr(attrName, value);
          }
        }

        // fire observers
        $$observers && forEach($$observers[key], function(fn) {
          try {
            fn(value);
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e);
          }
        });
      },


      /**
       * Observe an interpolated attribute.
       * The observer will never be called, if given attribute is not interpolated.
       *
       * @param {string} key Normalized key. (ie ngAttribute) .
       * @param {function(*)} fn Function that will be called whenever the attribute value changes.
       * @returns {function(*)} the `fn` Function passed in.
       */
      $observe: function(key, fn) {
        var attrs = this,
            $$observers = (attrs.$$observers || (attrs.$$observers = {})),
            listeners = ($$observers[key] || ($$observers[key] = []));

        listeners.push(fn);
        $rootScope.$evalAsync(function() {
          if (!listeners.$$inter) {
            // no one registered attribute interpolation function, so lets call it manually
            fn(attrs[key]);
          }
        });
        return fn;
      }
    };

    var urlSanitizationNode = $document[0].createElement('a'),
        startSymbol = $interpolate.startSymbol(),
        endSymbol = $interpolate.endSymbol(),
        denormalizeTemplate = (startSymbol == '{{' || endSymbol  == '}}')
            ? identity
            : function denormalizeTemplate(template) {
              return template.replace(/\{\{/g, startSymbol).replace(/}}/g, endSymbol);
            };


    return compile;

    //================================

    function compile($compileNodes, transcludeFn, maxPriority) {
      if (!($compileNodes instanceof jqLite)) {
        // jquery always rewraps, whereas we need to preserve the original selector so that we can modify it.
        $compileNodes = jqLite($compileNodes);
      }
      // We can not compile top level text elements since text nodes can be merged and we will
      // not be able to attach scope data to them, so we will wrap them in <span>
      forEach($compileNodes, function(node, index){
        if (node.nodeType == 3 /* text node */ && node.nodeValue.match(/\S+/) /* non-empty */ ) {
          $compileNodes[index] = jqLite(node).wrap('<span></span>').parent()[0];
        }
      });
      var compositeLinkFn = compileNodes($compileNodes, transcludeFn, $compileNodes, maxPriority);
      return function publicLinkFn(scope, cloneConnectFn){
        assertArg(scope, 'scope');
        // important!!: we must call our jqLite.clone() since the jQuery one is trying to be smart
        // and sometimes changes the structure of the DOM.
        var $linkNode = cloneConnectFn
          ? JQLitePrototype.clone.call($compileNodes) // IMPORTANT!!!
          : $compileNodes;

        // Attach scope only to non-text nodes.
        for(var i = 0, ii = $linkNode.length; i<ii; i++) {
          var node = $linkNode[i];
          if (node.nodeType == 1 /* element */ || node.nodeType == 9 /* document */) {
            $linkNode.eq(i).data('$scope', scope);
          }
        }
        safeAddClass($linkNode, 'ng-scope');
        if (cloneConnectFn) cloneConnectFn($linkNode, scope);
        if (compositeLinkFn) compositeLinkFn(scope, $linkNode, $linkNode);
        return $linkNode;
      };
    }

    function wrongMode(localName, mode) {
      throw Error("Unsupported '" + mode + "' for '" + localName + "'.");
    }

    function safeAddClass($element, className) {
      try {
        $element.addClass(className);
      } catch(e) {
        // ignore, since it means that we are trying to set class on
        // SVG element, where class name is read-only.
      }
    }

    /**
     * Compile function matches each node in nodeList against the directives. Once all directives
     * for a particular node are collected their compile functions are executed. The compile
     * functions return values - the linking functions - are combined into a composite linking
     * function, which is the a linking function for the node.
     *
     * @param {NodeList} nodeList an array of nodes or NodeList to compile
     * @param {function(angular.Scope[, cloneAttachFn]} transcludeFn A linking function, where the
     *        scope argument is auto-generated to the new child of the transcluded parent scope.
     * @param {DOMElement=} $rootElement If the nodeList is the root of the compilation tree then the
     *        rootElement must be set the jqLite collection of the compile root. This is
     *        needed so that the jqLite collection items can be replaced with widgets.
     * @param {number=} max directive priority
     * @returns {?function} A composite linking function of all of the matched directives or null.
     */
    function compileNodes(nodeList, transcludeFn, $rootElement, maxPriority) {
      var linkFns = [],
          nodeLinkFn, childLinkFn, directives, attrs, linkFnFound;

      for(var i = 0; i < nodeList.length; i++) {
        attrs = new Attributes();

        // we must always refer to nodeList[i] since the nodes can be replaced underneath us.
        directives = collectDirectives(nodeList[i], [], attrs, maxPriority);

        nodeLinkFn = (directives.length)
            ? applyDirectivesToNode(directives, nodeList[i], attrs, transcludeFn, $rootElement)
            : null;

        childLinkFn = (nodeLinkFn && nodeLinkFn.terminal || !nodeList[i].childNodes || !nodeList[i].childNodes.length)
            ? null
            : compileNodes(nodeList[i].childNodes,
                 nodeLinkFn ? nodeLinkFn.transclude : transcludeFn);

        linkFns.push(nodeLinkFn);
        linkFns.push(childLinkFn);
        linkFnFound = (linkFnFound || nodeLinkFn || childLinkFn);
      }

      // return a linking function if we have found anything, null otherwise
      return linkFnFound ? compositeLinkFn : null;

      function compositeLinkFn(scope, nodeList, $rootElement, boundTranscludeFn) {
        var nodeLinkFn, childLinkFn, node, childScope, childTranscludeFn, i, ii, n;

        // copy nodeList so that linking doesn't break due to live list updates.
        var stableNodeList = [];
        for (i = 0, ii = nodeList.length; i < ii; i++) {
          stableNodeList.push(nodeList[i]);
        }

        for(i = 0, n = 0, ii = linkFns.length; i < ii; n++) {
          node = stableNodeList[n];
          nodeLinkFn = linkFns[i++];
          childLinkFn = linkFns[i++];

          if (nodeLinkFn) {
            if (nodeLinkFn.scope) {
              childScope = scope.$new(isObject(nodeLinkFn.scope));
              jqLite(node).data('$scope', childScope);
            } else {
              childScope = scope;
            }
            childTranscludeFn = nodeLinkFn.transclude;
            if (childTranscludeFn || (!boundTranscludeFn && transcludeFn)) {
              nodeLinkFn(childLinkFn, childScope, node, $rootElement,
                  (function(transcludeFn) {
                    return function(cloneFn) {
                      var transcludeScope = scope.$new();
                      transcludeScope.$$transcluded = true;

                      return transcludeFn(transcludeScope, cloneFn).
                          bind('$destroy', bind(transcludeScope, transcludeScope.$destroy));
                    };
                  })(childTranscludeFn || transcludeFn)
              );
            } else {
              nodeLinkFn(childLinkFn, childScope, node, undefined, boundTranscludeFn);
            }
          } else if (childLinkFn) {
            childLinkFn(scope, node.childNodes, undefined, boundTranscludeFn);
          }
        }
      }
    }


    /**
     * Looks for directives on the given node and adds them to the directive collection which is
     * sorted.
     *
     * @param node Node to search.
     * @param directives An array to which the directives are added to. This array is sorted before
     *        the function returns.
     * @param attrs The shared attrs object which is used to populate the normalized attributes.
     * @param {number=} maxPriority Max directive priority.
     */
    function collectDirectives(node, directives, attrs, maxPriority) {
      var nodeType = node.nodeType,
          attrsMap = attrs.$attr,
          match,
          className;

      switch(nodeType) {
        case 1: /* Element */
          // use the node name: <directive>
          addDirective(directives,
              directiveNormalize(nodeName_(node).toLowerCase()), 'E', maxPriority);

          // iterate over the attributes
          for (var attr, name, nName, value, nAttrs = node.attributes,
                   j = 0, jj = nAttrs && nAttrs.length; j < jj; j++) {
            attr = nAttrs[j];
            if (!msie || msie >= 8 || attr.specified) {
              name = attr.name;
              nName = directiveNormalize(name.toLowerCase());
              attrsMap[nName] = name;
              attrs[nName] = value = trim((msie && name == 'href')
                ? decodeURIComponent(node.getAttribute(name, 2))
                : attr.value);
              if (getBooleanAttrName(node, nName)) {
                attrs[nName] = true; // presence means true
              }
              addAttrInterpolateDirective(node, directives, value, nName);
              addDirective(directives, nName, 'A', maxPriority);
            }
          }

          // use class as directive
          className = node.className;
          if (isString(className) && className !== '') {
            while (match = CLASS_DIRECTIVE_REGEXP.exec(className)) {
              nName = directiveNormalize(match[2]);
              if (addDirective(directives, nName, 'C', maxPriority)) {
                attrs[nName] = trim(match[3]);
              }
              className = className.substr(match.index + match[0].length);
            }
          }
          break;
        case 3: /* Text Node */
          addTextInterpolateDirective(directives, node.nodeValue);
          break;
        case 8: /* Comment */
          try {
            match = COMMENT_DIRECTIVE_REGEXP.exec(node.nodeValue);
            if (match) {
              nName = directiveNormalize(match[1]);
              if (addDirective(directives, nName, 'M', maxPriority)) {
                attrs[nName] = trim(match[2]);
              }
            }
          } catch (e) {
            // turns out that under some circumstances IE9 throws errors when one attempts to read comment's node value.
            // Just ignore it and continue. (Can't seem to reproduce in test case.)
          }
          break;
      }

      directives.sort(byPriority);
      return directives;
    }


    /**
     * Once the directives have been collected, their compile functions are executed. This method
     * is responsible for inlining directive templates as well as terminating the application
     * of the directives if the terminal directive has been reached.
     *
     * @param {Array} directives Array of collected directives to execute their compile function.
     *        this needs to be pre-sorted by priority order.
     * @param {Node} compileNode The raw DOM node to apply the compile functions to
     * @param {Object} templateAttrs The shared attribute function
     * @param {function(angular.Scope[, cloneAttachFn]} transcludeFn A linking function, where the
     *        scope argument is auto-generated to the new child of the transcluded parent scope.
     * @param {JQLite} jqCollection If we are working on the root of the compile tree then this
     *        argument has the root jqLite array so that we can replace nodes on it.
     * @returns linkFn
     */
    function applyDirectivesToNode(directives, compileNode, templateAttrs, transcludeFn, jqCollection) {
      var terminalPriority = -Number.MAX_VALUE,
          preLinkFns = [],
          postLinkFns = [],
          newScopeDirective = null,
          newIsolateScopeDirective = null,
          templateDirective = null,
          $compileNode = templateAttrs.$$element = jqLite(compileNode),
          directive,
          directiveName,
          $template,
          transcludeDirective,
          childTranscludeFn = transcludeFn,
          controllerDirectives,
          linkFn,
          directiveValue;

      // executes all directives on the current element
      for(var i = 0, ii = directives.length; i < ii; i++) {
        directive = directives[i];
        $template = undefined;

        if (terminalPriority > directive.priority) {
          break; // prevent further processing of directives
        }

        if (directiveValue = directive.scope) {
          assertNoDuplicate('isolated scope', newIsolateScopeDirective, directive, $compileNode);
          if (isObject(directiveValue)) {
            safeAddClass($compileNode, 'ng-isolate-scope');
            newIsolateScopeDirective = directive;
          }
          safeAddClass($compileNode, 'ng-scope');
          newScopeDirective = newScopeDirective || directive;
        }

        directiveName = directive.name;

        if (directiveValue = directive.controller) {
          controllerDirectives = controllerDirectives || {};
          assertNoDuplicate("'" + directiveName + "' controller",
              controllerDirectives[directiveName], directive, $compileNode);
          controllerDirectives[directiveName] = directive;
        }

        if (directiveValue = directive.transclude) {
          assertNoDuplicate('transclusion', transcludeDirective, directive, $compileNode);
          transcludeDirective = directive;
          terminalPriority = directive.priority;
          if (directiveValue == 'element') {
            $template = jqLite(compileNode);
            $compileNode = templateAttrs.$$element =
                jqLite(document.createComment(' ' + directiveName + ': ' + templateAttrs[directiveName] + ' '));
            compileNode = $compileNode[0];
            replaceWith(jqCollection, jqLite($template[0]), compileNode);
            childTranscludeFn = compile($template, transcludeFn, terminalPriority);
          } else {
            $template = jqLite(JQLiteClone(compileNode)).contents();
            $compileNode.html(''); // clear contents
            childTranscludeFn = compile($template, transcludeFn);
          }
        }

        if ((directiveValue = directive.template)) {
          assertNoDuplicate('template', templateDirective, directive, $compileNode);
          templateDirective = directive;
          directiveValue = denormalizeTemplate(directiveValue);

          if (directive.replace) {
            $template = jqLite('<div>' +
                                 trim(directiveValue) +
                               '</div>').contents();
            compileNode = $template[0];

            if ($template.length != 1 || compileNode.nodeType !== 1) {
              throw new Error(MULTI_ROOT_TEMPLATE_ERROR + directiveValue);
            }

            replaceWith(jqCollection, $compileNode, compileNode);

            var newTemplateAttrs = {$attr: {}};

            // combine directives from the original node and from the template:
            // - take the array of directives for this element
            // - split it into two parts, those that were already applied and those that weren't
            // - collect directives from the template, add them to the second group and sort them
            // - append the second group with new directives to the first group
            directives = directives.concat(
                collectDirectives(
                    compileNode,
                    directives.splice(i + 1, directives.length - (i + 1)),
                    newTemplateAttrs
                )
            );
            mergeTemplateAttributes(templateAttrs, newTemplateAttrs);

            ii = directives.length;
          } else {
            $compileNode.html(directiveValue);
          }
        }

        if (directive.templateUrl) {
          assertNoDuplicate('template', templateDirective, directive, $compileNode);
          templateDirective = directive;
          nodeLinkFn = compileTemplateUrl(directives.splice(i, directives.length - i),
              nodeLinkFn, $compileNode, templateAttrs, jqCollection, directive.replace,
              childTranscludeFn);
          ii = directives.length;
        } else if (directive.compile) {
          try {
            linkFn = directive.compile($compileNode, templateAttrs, childTranscludeFn);
            if (isFunction(linkFn)) {
              addLinkFns(null, linkFn);
            } else if (linkFn) {
              addLinkFns(linkFn.pre, linkFn.post);
            }
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e, startingTag($compileNode));
          }
        }

        if (directive.terminal) {
          nodeLinkFn.terminal = true;
          terminalPriority = Math.max(terminalPriority, directive.priority);
        }

      }

      nodeLinkFn.scope = newScopeDirective && newScopeDirective.scope;
      nodeLinkFn.transclude = transcludeDirective && childTranscludeFn;

      // might be normal or delayed nodeLinkFn depending on if templateUrl is present
      return nodeLinkFn;

      ////////////////////

      function addLinkFns(pre, post) {
        if (pre) {
          pre.require = directive.require;
          preLinkFns.push(pre);
        }
        if (post) {
          post.require = directive.require;
          postLinkFns.push(post);
        }
      }


      function getControllers(require, $element) {
        var value, retrievalMethod = 'data', optional = false;
        if (isString(require)) {
          while((value = require.charAt(0)) == '^' || value == '?') {
            require = require.substr(1);
            if (value == '^') {
              retrievalMethod = 'inheritedData';
            }
            optional = optional || value == '?';
          }
          value = $element[retrievalMethod]('$' + require + 'Controller');
          if (!value && !optional) {
            throw Error("No controller: " + require);
          }
          return value;
        } else if (isArray(require)) {
          value = [];
          forEach(require, function(require) {
            value.push(getControllers(require, $element));
          });
        }
        return value;
      }


      function nodeLinkFn(childLinkFn, scope, linkNode, $rootElement, boundTranscludeFn) {
        var attrs, $element, i, ii, linkFn, controller;

        if (compileNode === linkNode) {
          attrs = templateAttrs;
        } else {
          attrs = shallowCopy(templateAttrs, new Attributes(jqLite(linkNode), templateAttrs.$attr));
        }
        $element = attrs.$$element;

        if (newIsolateScopeDirective) {
          var LOCAL_REGEXP = /^\s*([@=&])\s*(\w*)\s*$/;

          var parentScope = scope.$parent || scope;

          forEach(newIsolateScopeDirective.scope, function(definiton, scopeName) {
            var match = definiton.match(LOCAL_REGEXP) || [],
                attrName = match[2]|| scopeName,
                mode = match[1], // @, =, or &
                lastValue,
                parentGet, parentSet;

            scope.$$isolateBindings[scopeName] = mode + attrName;

            switch (mode) {

              case '@': {
                attrs.$observe(attrName, function(value) {
                  scope[scopeName] = value;
                });
                attrs.$$observers[attrName].$$scope = parentScope;
                break;
              }

              case '=': {
                parentGet = $parse(attrs[attrName]);
                parentSet = parentGet.assign || function() {
                  // reset the change, or we will throw this exception on every $digest
                  lastValue = scope[scopeName] = parentGet(parentScope);
                  throw Error(NON_ASSIGNABLE_MODEL_EXPRESSION + attrs[attrName] +
                      ' (directive: ' + newIsolateScopeDirective.name + ')');
                };
                lastValue = scope[scopeName] = parentGet(parentScope);
                scope.$watch(function parentValueWatch() {
                  var parentValue = parentGet(parentScope);

                  if (parentValue !== scope[scopeName]) {
                    // we are out of sync and need to copy
                    if (parentValue !== lastValue) {
                      // parent changed and it has precedence
                      lastValue = scope[scopeName] = parentValue;
                    } else {
                      // if the parent can be assigned then do so
                      parentSet(parentScope, parentValue = lastValue = scope[scopeName]);
                    }
                  }
                  return parentValue;
                });
                break;
              }

              case '&': {
                parentGet = $parse(attrs[attrName]);
                scope[scopeName] = function(locals) {
                  return parentGet(parentScope, locals);
                };
                break;
              }

              default: {
                throw Error('Invalid isolate scope definition for directive ' +
                    newIsolateScopeDirective.name + ': ' + definiton);
              }
            }
          });
        }

        if (controllerDirectives) {
          forEach(controllerDirectives, function(directive) {
            var locals = {
              $scope: scope,
              $element: $element,
              $attrs: attrs,
              $transclude: boundTranscludeFn
            };

            controller = directive.controller;
            if (controller == '@') {
              controller = attrs[directive.name];
            }

            $element.data(
                '$' + directive.name + 'Controller',
                $controller(controller, locals));
          });
        }

        // PRELINKING
        for(i = 0, ii = preLinkFns.length; i < ii; i++) {
          try {
            linkFn = preLinkFns[i];
            linkFn(scope, $element, attrs,
                linkFn.require && getControllers(linkFn.require, $element));
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e, startingTag($element));
          }
        }

        // RECURSION
        childLinkFn && childLinkFn(scope, linkNode.childNodes, undefined, boundTranscludeFn);

        // POSTLINKING
        for(i = 0, ii = postLinkFns.length; i < ii; i++) {
          try {
            linkFn = postLinkFns[i];
            linkFn(scope, $element, attrs,
                linkFn.require && getControllers(linkFn.require, $element));
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e, startingTag($element));
          }
        }
      }
    }


    /**
     * looks up the directive and decorates it with exception handling and proper parameters. We
     * call this the boundDirective.
     *
     * @param {string} name name of the directive to look up.
     * @param {string} location The directive must be found in specific format.
     *   String containing any of theses characters:
     *
     *   * `E`: element name
     *   * `A': attribute
     *   * `C`: class
     *   * `M`: comment
     * @returns true if directive was added.
     */
    function addDirective(tDirectives, name, location, maxPriority) {
      var match = false;
      if (hasDirectives.hasOwnProperty(name)) {
        for(var directive, directives = $injector.get(name + Suffix),
            i = 0, ii = directives.length; i<ii; i++) {
          try {
            directive = directives[i];
            if ( (maxPriority === undefined || maxPriority > directive.priority) &&
                 directive.restrict.indexOf(location) != -1) {
              tDirectives.push(directive);
              match = true;
            }
          } catch(e) { $exceptionHandler(e); }
        }
      }
      return match;
    }


    /**
     * When the element is replaced with HTML template then the new attributes
     * on the template need to be merged with the existing attributes in the DOM.
     * The desired effect is to have both of the attributes present.
     *
     * @param {object} dst destination attributes (original DOM)
     * @param {object} src source attributes (from the directive template)
     */
    function mergeTemplateAttributes(dst, src) {
      var srcAttr = src.$attr,
          dstAttr = dst.$attr,
          $element = dst.$$element;

      // reapply the old attributes to the new element
      forEach(dst, function(value, key) {
        if (key.charAt(0) != '$') {
          if (src[key]) {
            value += (key === 'style' ? ';' : ' ') + src[key];
          }
          dst.$set(key, value, true, srcAttr[key]);
        }
      });

      // copy the new attributes on the old attrs object
      forEach(src, function(value, key) {
        if (key == 'class') {
          safeAddClass($element, value);
          dst['class'] = (dst['class'] ? dst['class'] + ' ' : '') + value;
        } else if (key == 'style') {
          $element.attr('style', $element.attr('style') + ';' + value);
        } else if (key.charAt(0) != '$' && !dst.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
          dst[key] = value;
          dstAttr[key] = srcAttr[key];
        }
      });
    }


    function compileTemplateUrl(directives, beforeTemplateNodeLinkFn, $compileNode, tAttrs,
        $rootElement, replace, childTranscludeFn) {
      var linkQueue = [],
          afterTemplateNodeLinkFn,
          afterTemplateChildLinkFn,
          beforeTemplateCompileNode = $compileNode[0],
          origAsyncDirective = directives.shift(),
          // The fact that we have to copy and patch the directive seems wrong!
          derivedSyncDirective = extend({}, origAsyncDirective, {
            controller: null, templateUrl: null, transclude: null, scope: null
          });

      $compileNode.html('');

      $http.get(origAsyncDirective.templateUrl, {cache: $templateCache}).
        success(function(content) {
          var compileNode, tempTemplateAttrs, $template;

          content = denormalizeTemplate(content);

          if (replace) {
            $template = jqLite('<div>' + trim(content) + '</div>').contents();
            compileNode = $template[0];

            if ($template.length != 1 || compileNode.nodeType !== 1) {
              throw new Error(MULTI_ROOT_TEMPLATE_ERROR + content);
            }

            tempTemplateAttrs = {$attr: {}};
            replaceWith($rootElement, $compileNode, compileNode);
            collectDirectives(compileNode, directives, tempTemplateAttrs);
            mergeTemplateAttributes(tAttrs, tempTemplateAttrs);
          } else {
            compileNode = beforeTemplateCompileNode;
            $compileNode.html(content);
          }

          directives.unshift(derivedSyncDirective);
          afterTemplateNodeLinkFn = applyDirectivesToNode(directives, compileNode, tAttrs, childTranscludeFn);
          afterTemplateChildLinkFn = compileNodes($compileNode[0].childNodes, childTranscludeFn);


          while(linkQueue.length) {
            var controller = linkQueue.pop(),
                linkRootElement = linkQueue.pop(),
                beforeTemplateLinkNode = linkQueue.pop(),
                scope = linkQueue.pop(),
                linkNode = compileNode;

            if (beforeTemplateLinkNode !== beforeTemplateCompileNode) {
              // it was cloned therefore we have to clone as well.
              linkNode = JQLiteClone(compileNode);
              replaceWith(linkRootElement, jqLite(beforeTemplateLinkNode), linkNode);
            }

            afterTemplateNodeLinkFn(function() {
              beforeTemplateNodeLinkFn(afterTemplateChildLinkFn, scope, linkNode, $rootElement, controller);
            }, scope, linkNode, $rootElement, controller);
          }
          linkQueue = null;
        }).
        error(function(response, code, headers, config) {
          throw Error('Failed to load template: ' + config.url);
        });

      return function delayedNodeLinkFn(ignoreChildLinkFn, scope, node, rootElement, controller) {
        if (linkQueue) {
          linkQueue.push(scope);
          linkQueue.push(node);
          linkQueue.push(rootElement);
          linkQueue.push(controller);
        } else {
          afterTemplateNodeLinkFn(function() {
            beforeTemplateNodeLinkFn(afterTemplateChildLinkFn, scope, node, rootElement, controller);
          }, scope, node, rootElement, controller);
        }
      };
    }


    /**
     * Sorting function for bound directives.
     */
    function byPriority(a, b) {
      return b.priority - a.priority;
    }


    function assertNoDuplicate(what, previousDirective, directive, element) {
      if (previousDirective) {
        throw Error('Multiple directives [' + previousDirective.name + ', ' +
          directive.name + '] asking for ' + what + ' on: ' +  startingTag(element));
      }
    }


    function addTextInterpolateDirective(directives, text) {
      var interpolateFn = $interpolate(text, true);
      if (interpolateFn) {
        directives.push({
          priority: 0,
          compile: valueFn(function textInterpolateLinkFn(scope, node) {
            var parent = node.parent(),
                bindings = parent.data('$binding') || [];
            bindings.push(interpolateFn);
            safeAddClass(parent.data('$binding', bindings), 'ng-binding');
            scope.$watch(interpolateFn, function interpolateFnWatchAction(value) {
              node[0].nodeValue = value;
            });
          })
        });
      }
    }


    function addAttrInterpolateDirective(node, directives, value, name) {
      var interpolateFn = $interpolate(value, true);

      // no interpolation found -> ignore
      if (!interpolateFn) return;


      directives.push({
        priority: 100,
        compile: valueFn(function attrInterpolateLinkFn(scope, element, attr) {
          var $$observers = (attr.$$observers || (attr.$$observers = {}));

          if (name === 'class') {
            // we need to interpolate classes again, in the case the element was replaced
            // and therefore the two class attrs got merged - we want to interpolate the result
            interpolateFn = $interpolate(attr[name], true);
          }

          attr[name] = undefined;
          ($$observers[name] || ($$observers[name] = [])).$$inter = true;
          (attr.$$observers && attr.$$observers[name].$$scope || scope).
            $watch(interpolateFn, function interpolateFnWatchAction(value) {
              attr.$set(name, value);
            });
        })
      });
    }


    /**
     * This is a special jqLite.replaceWith, which can replace items which
     * have no parents, provided that the containing jqLite collection is provided.
     *
     * @param {JqLite=} $rootElement The root of the compile tree. Used so that we can replace nodes
     *    in the root of the tree.
     * @param {JqLite} $element The jqLite element which we are going to replace. We keep the shell,
     *    but replace its DOM node reference.
     * @param {Node} newNode The new DOM node.
     */
    function replaceWith($rootElement, $element, newNode) {
      var oldNode = $element[0],
          parent = oldNode.parentNode,
          i, ii;

      if ($rootElement) {
        for(i = 0, ii = $rootElement.length; i < ii; i++) {
          if ($rootElement[i] == oldNode) {
            $rootElement[i] = newNode;
            break;
          }
        }
      }

      if (parent) {
        parent.replaceChild(newNode, oldNode);
      }

      newNode[jqLite.expando] = oldNode[jqLite.expando];
      $element[0] = newNode;
    }
  }];
}

var PREFIX_REGEXP = /^(x[\:\-_]|data[\:\-_])/i;
/**
 * Converts all accepted directives format into proper directive name.
 * All of these will become 'myDirective':
 *   my:DiRective
 *   my-directive
 *   x-my-directive
 *   data-my:directive
 *
 * Also there is special case for Moz prefix starting with upper case letter.
 * @param name Name to normalize
 */
function directiveNormalize(name) {
  return camelCase(name.replace(PREFIX_REGEXP, ''));
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$compile.directive.Attributes
 * @description
 *
 * A shared object between directive compile / linking functions which contains normalized DOM element
 * attributes. The the values reflect current binding state `{{ }}`. The normalization is needed
 * since all of these are treated as equivalent in Angular:
 *
 *          <span ng:bind="a" ng-bind="a" data-ng-bind="a" x-ng-bind="a">
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc property
 * @name ng.$compile.directive.Attributes#$attr
 * @propertyOf ng.$compile.directive.Attributes
 * @returns {object} A map of DOM element attribute names to the normalized name. This is
 *          needed to do reverse lookup from normalized name back to actual name.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.$compile.directive.Attributes#$set
 * @methodOf ng.$compile.directive.Attributes
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Set DOM element attribute value.
 *
 *
 * @param {string} name Normalized element attribute name of the property to modify. The name is
 *          revers translated using the {@link ng.$compile.directive.Attributes#$attr $attr}
 *          property to the original name.
 * @param {string} value Value to set the attribute to.
 */



/**
 * Closure compiler type information
 */

function nodesetLinkingFn(
  /* angular.Scope */ scope,
  /* NodeList */ nodeList,
  /* Element */ rootElement,
  /* function(Function) */ boundTranscludeFn
){}

function directiveLinkingFn(
  /* nodesetLinkingFn */ nodesetLinkingFn,
  /* angular.Scope */ scope,
  /* Node */ node,
  /* Element */ rootElement,
  /* function(Function) */ boundTranscludeFn
){}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$controllerProvider
 * @description
 * The {@link ng.$controller $controller service} is used by Angular to create new
 * controllers.
 *
 * This provider allows controller registration via the
 * {@link ng.$controllerProvider#register register} method.
 */
function $ControllerProvider() {
  var controllers = {};


  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.$controllerProvider#register
   * @methodOf ng.$controllerProvider
   * @param {string} name Controller name
   * @param {Function|Array} constructor Controller constructor fn (optionally decorated with DI
   *    annotations in the array notation).
   */
  this.register = function(name, constructor) {
    if (isObject(name)) {
      extend(controllers, name)
    } else {
      controllers[name] = constructor;
    }
  };


  this.$get = ['$injector', '$window', function($injector, $window) {

    /**
     * @ngdoc function
     * @name ng.$controller
     * @requires $injector
     *
     * @param {Function|string} constructor If called with a function then it's considered to be the
     *    controller constructor function. Otherwise it's considered to be a string which is used
     *    to retrieve the controller constructor using the following steps:
     *
     *    * check if a controller with given name is registered via `$controllerProvider`
     *    * check if evaluating the string on the current scope returns a constructor
     *    * check `window[constructor]` on the global `window` object
     *
     * @param {Object} locals Injection locals for Controller.
     * @return {Object} Instance of given controller.
     *
     * @description
     * `$controller` service is responsible for instantiating controllers.
     *
     * It's just a simple call to {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}, but extracted into
     * a service, so that one can override this service with {@link https://gist.github.com/1649788
     * BC version}.
     */
    return function(constructor, locals) {
      if(isString(constructor)) {
        var name = constructor;
        constructor = controllers.hasOwnProperty(name)
            ? controllers[name]
            : getter(locals.$scope, name, true) || getter($window, name, true);

        assertArgFn(constructor, name, true);
      }

      return $injector.instantiate(constructor, locals);
    };
  }];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$document
 * @requires $window
 *
 * @description
 * A {@link angular.element jQuery (lite)}-wrapped reference to the browser's `window.document`
 * element.
 */
function $DocumentProvider(){
  this.$get = ['$window', function(window){
    return jqLite(window.document);
  }];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.$exceptionHandler
 * @requires $log
 *
 * @description
 * Any uncaught exception in angular expressions is delegated to this service.
 * The default implementation simply delegates to `$log.error` which logs it into
 * the browser console.
 *
 * In unit tests, if `angular-mocks.js` is loaded, this service is overridden by
 * {@link ngMock.$exceptionHandler mock $exceptionHandler} which aids in testing.
 *
 * @param {Error} exception Exception associated with the error.
 * @param {string=} cause optional information about the context in which
 *       the error was thrown.
 *
 */
function $ExceptionHandlerProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$log', function($log) {
    return function(exception, cause) {
      $log.error.apply($log, arguments);
    };
  }];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$interpolateProvider
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 *
 * Used for configuring the interpolation markup. Defaults to `{{` and `}}`.
 */
function $InterpolateProvider() {
  var startSymbol = '{{';
  var endSymbol = '}}';

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$interpolateProvider#startSymbol
   * @methodOf ng.$interpolateProvider
   * @description
   * Symbol to denote start of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to `{{`.
   *
   * @param {string=} value new value to set the starting symbol to.
   * @returns {string|self} Returns the symbol when used as getter and self if used as setter.
   */
  this.startSymbol = function(value){
    if (value) {
      startSymbol = value;
      return this;
    } else {
      return startSymbol;
    }
  };

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$interpolateProvider#endSymbol
   * @methodOf ng.$interpolateProvider
   * @description
   * Symbol to denote the end of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to `}}`.
   *
   * @param {string=} value new value to set the ending symbol to.
   * @returns {string|self} Returns the symbol when used as getter and self if used as setter.
   */
  this.endSymbol = function(value){
    if (value) {
      endSymbol = value;
      return this;
    } else {
      return endSymbol;
    }
  };


  this.$get = ['$parse', function($parse) {
    var startSymbolLength = startSymbol.length,
        endSymbolLength = endSymbol.length;

    /**
     * @ngdoc function
     * @name ng.$interpolate
     * @function
     *
     * @requires $parse
     *
     * @description
     *
     * Compiles a string with markup into an interpolation function. This service is used by the
     * HTML {@link ng.$compile $compile} service for data binding. See
     * {@link ng.$interpolateProvider $interpolateProvider} for configuring the
     * interpolation markup.
     *
     *
       <pre>
         var $interpolate = ...; // injected
         var exp = $interpolate('Hello {{name}}!');
         expect(exp({name:'Angular'}).toEqual('Hello Angular!');
       </pre>
     *
     *
     * @param {string} text The text with markup to interpolate.
     * @param {boolean=} mustHaveExpression if set to true then the interpolation string must have
     *    embedded expression in order to return an interpolation function. Strings with no
     *    embedded expression will return null for the interpolation function.
     * @returns {function(context)} an interpolation function which is used to compute the interpolated
     *    string. The function has these parameters:
     *
     *    * `context`: an object against which any expressions embedded in the strings are evaluated
     *      against.
     *
     */
    function $interpolate(text, mustHaveExpression) {
      var startIndex,
          endIndex,
          index = 0,
          parts = [],
          length = text.length,
          hasInterpolation = false,
          fn,
          exp,
          concat = [];

      while(index < length) {
        if ( ((startIndex = text.indexOf(startSymbol, index)) != -1) &&
             ((endIndex = text.indexOf(endSymbol, startIndex + startSymbolLength)) != -1) ) {
          (index != startIndex) && parts.push(text.substring(index, startIndex));
          parts.push(fn = $parse(exp = text.substring(startIndex + startSymbolLength, endIndex)));
          fn.exp = exp;
          index = endIndex + endSymbolLength;
          hasInterpolation = true;
        } else {
          // we did not find anything, so we have to add the remainder to the parts array
          (index != length) && parts.push(text.substring(index));
          index = length;
        }
      }

      if (!(length = parts.length)) {
        // we added, nothing, must have been an empty string.
        parts.push('');
        length = 1;
      }

      if (!mustHaveExpression  || hasInterpolation) {
        concat.length = length;
        fn = function(context) {
          for(var i = 0, ii = length, part; i<ii; i++) {
            if (typeof (part = parts[i]) == 'function') {
              part = part(context);
              if (part == null || part == undefined) {
                part = '';
              } else if (typeof part != 'string') {
                part = toJson(part);
              }
            }
            concat[i] = part;
          }
          return concat.join('');
        };
        fn.exp = text;
        fn.parts = parts;
        return fn;
      }
    }


    /**
     * @ngdoc method
     * @name ng.$interpolate#startSymbol
     * @methodOf ng.$interpolate
     * @description
     * Symbol to denote the start of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to `{{`.
     *
     * Use {@link ng.$interpolateProvider#startSymbol $interpolateProvider#startSymbol} to change
     * the symbol.
     *
     * @returns {string} start symbol.
     */
    $interpolate.startSymbol = function() {
      return startSymbol;
    }


    /**
     * @ngdoc method
     * @name ng.$interpolate#endSymbol
     * @methodOf ng.$interpolate
     * @description
     * Symbol to denote the end of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to `}}`.
     *
     * Use {@link ng.$interpolateProvider#endSymbol $interpolateProvider#endSymbol} to change
     * the symbol.
     *
     * @returns {string} start symbol.
     */
    $interpolate.endSymbol = function() {
      return endSymbol;
    }

    return $interpolate;
  }];
}

var URL_MATCH = /^([^:]+):\/\/(\w+:{0,1}\w*@)?(\{?[\w\.-]*\}?)(:([0-9]+))?(\/[^\?#]*)?(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?$/,
    PATH_MATCH = /^([^\?#]*)?(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?$/,
    HASH_MATCH = PATH_MATCH,
    DEFAULT_PORTS = {'http': 80, 'https': 443, 'ftp': 21};


/**
 * Encode path using encodeUriSegment, ignoring forward slashes
 *
 * @param {string} path Path to encode
 * @returns {string}
 */
function encodePath(path) {
  var segments = path.split('/'),
      i = segments.length;

  while (i--) {
    segments[i] = encodeUriSegment(segments[i]);
  }

  return segments.join('/');
}

function stripHash(url) {
  return url.split('#')[0];
}


function matchUrl(url, obj) {
  var match = URL_MATCH.exec(url);

  match = {
      protocol: match[1],
      host: match[3],
      port: int(match[5]) || DEFAULT_PORTS[match[1]] || null,
      path: match[6] || '/',
      search: match[8],
      hash: match[10]
    };

  if (obj) {
    obj.$$protocol = match.protocol;
    obj.$$host = match.host;
    obj.$$port = match.port;
  }

  return match;
}


function composeProtocolHostPort(protocol, host, port) {
  return protocol + '://' + host + (port == DEFAULT_PORTS[protocol] ? '' : ':' + port);
}


function pathPrefixFromBase(basePath) {
  return basePath.substr(0, basePath.lastIndexOf('/'));
}


function convertToHtml5Url(url, basePath, hashPrefix) {
  var match = matchUrl(url);

  // already html5 url
  if (decodeURIComponent(match.path) != basePath || isUndefined(match.hash) ||
      match.hash.indexOf(hashPrefix) !== 0) {
    return url;
  // convert hashbang url -> html5 url
  } else {
    return composeProtocolHostPort(match.protocol, match.host, match.port) +
           pathPrefixFromBase(basePath) + match.hash.substr(hashPrefix.length);
  }
}


function convertToHashbangUrl(url, basePath, hashPrefix) {
  var match = matchUrl(url);

  // already hashbang url
  if (decodeURIComponent(match.path) == basePath && !isUndefined(match.hash) &&
      match.hash.indexOf(hashPrefix) === 0) {
    return url;
  // convert html5 url -> hashbang url
  } else {
    var search = match.search && '?' + match.search || '',
        hash = match.hash && '#' + match.hash || '',
        pathPrefix = pathPrefixFromBase(basePath),
        path = match.path.substr(pathPrefix.length);

    if (match.path.indexOf(pathPrefix) !== 0) {
      throw Error('Invalid url "' + url + '", missing path prefix "' + pathPrefix + '" !');
    }

    return composeProtocolHostPort(match.protocol, match.host, match.port) + basePath +
           '#' + hashPrefix + path + search + hash;
  }
}


/**
 * LocationUrl represents an url
 * This object is exposed as $location service when HTML5 mode is enabled and supported
 *
 * @constructor
 * @param {string} url HTML5 url
 * @param {string} pathPrefix
 */
function LocationUrl(url, pathPrefix, appBaseUrl) {
  pathPrefix = pathPrefix || '';

  /**
   * Parse given html5 (regular) url string into properties
   * @param {string} newAbsoluteUrl HTML5 url
   * @private
   */
  this.$$parse = function(newAbsoluteUrl) {
    var match = matchUrl(newAbsoluteUrl, this);

    if (match.path.indexOf(pathPrefix) !== 0) {
      throw Error('Invalid url "' + newAbsoluteUrl + '", missing path prefix "' + pathPrefix + '" !');
    }

    this.$$path = decodeURIComponent(match.path.substr(pathPrefix.length));
    this.$$search = parseKeyValue(match.search);
    this.$$hash = match.hash && decodeURIComponent(match.hash) || '';

    this.$$compose();
  };

  /**
   * Compose url and update `absUrl` property
   * @private
   */
  this.$$compose = function() {
    var search = toKeyValue(this.$$search),
        hash = this.$$hash ? '#' + encodeUriSegment(this.$$hash) : '';

    this.$$url = encodePath(this.$$path) + (search ? '?' + search : '') + hash;
    this.$$absUrl = composeProtocolHostPort(this.$$protocol, this.$$host, this.$$port) +
                    pathPrefix + this.$$url;
  };


  this.$$rewriteAppUrl = function(absoluteLinkUrl) {
    if(absoluteLinkUrl.indexOf(appBaseUrl) == 0) {
      return absoluteLinkUrl;
    }
  }


  this.$$parse(url);
}


/**
 * LocationHashbangUrl represents url
 * This object is exposed as $location service when html5 history api is disabled or not supported
 *
 * @constructor
 * @param {string} url Legacy url
 * @param {string} hashPrefix Prefix for hash part (containing path and search)
 */
function LocationHashbangUrl(url, hashPrefix, appBaseUrl) {
  var basePath;

  /**
   * Parse given hashbang url into properties
   * @param {string} url Hashbang url
   * @private
   */
  this.$$parse = function(url) {
    var match = matchUrl(url, this);


    if (match.hash && match.hash.indexOf(hashPrefix) !== 0) {
      throw Error('Invalid url "' + url + '", missing hash prefix "' + hashPrefix + '" !');
    }

    basePath = match.path + (match.search ? '?' + match.search : '');
    match = HASH_MATCH.exec((match.hash || '').substr(hashPrefix.length));
    if (match[1]) {
      this.$$path = (match[1].charAt(0) == '/' ? '' : '/') + decodeURIComponent(match[1]);
    } else {
      this.$$path = '';
    }

    this.$$search = parseKeyValue(match[3]);
    this.$$hash = match[5] && decodeURIComponent(match[5]) || '';

    this.$$compose();
  };

  /**
   * Compose hashbang url and update `absUrl` property
   * @private
   */
  this.$$compose = function() {
    var search = toKeyValue(this.$$search),
        hash = this.$$hash ? '#' + encodeUriSegment(this.$$hash) : '';

    this.$$url = encodePath(this.$$path) + (search ? '?' + search : '') + hash;
    this.$$absUrl = composeProtocolHostPort(this.$$protocol, this.$$host, this.$$port) +
                    basePath + (this.$$url ? '#' + hashPrefix + this.$$url : '');
  };

  this.$$rewriteAppUrl = function(absoluteLinkUrl) {
    if(absoluteLinkUrl.indexOf(appBaseUrl) == 0) {
      return absoluteLinkUrl;
    }
  }


  this.$$parse(url);
}


LocationUrl.prototype = {

  /**
   * Has any change been replacing ?
   * @private
   */
  $$replace: false,

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#absUrl
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * This method is getter only.
   *
   * Return full url representation with all segments encoded according to rules specified in
   * {@link http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt RFC 3986}.
   *
   * @return {string} full url
   */
  absUrl: locationGetter('$$absUrl'),

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#url
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * This method is getter / setter.
   *
   * Return url (e.g. `/path?a=b#hash`) when called without any parameter.
   *
   * Change path, search and hash, when called with parameter and return `$location`.
   *
   * @param {string=} url New url without base prefix (e.g. `/path?a=b#hash`)
   * @return {string} url
   */
  url: function(url, replace) {
    if (isUndefined(url))
      return this.$$url;

    var match = PATH_MATCH.exec(url);
    if (match[1]) this.path(decodeURIComponent(match[1]));
    if (match[2] || match[1]) this.search(match[3] || '');
    this.hash(match[5] || '', replace);

    return this;
  },

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#protocol
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * This method is getter only.
   *
   * Return protocol of current url.
   *
   * @return {string} protocol of current url
   */
  protocol: locationGetter('$$protocol'),

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#host
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * This method is getter only.
   *
   * Return host of current url.
   *
   * @return {string} host of current url.
   */
  host: locationGetter('$$host'),

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#port
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * This method is getter only.
   *
   * Return port of current url.
   *
   * @return {Number} port
   */
  port: locationGetter('$$port'),

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#path
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * This method is getter / setter.
   *
   * Return path of current url when called without any parameter.
   *
   * Change path when called with parameter and return `$location`.
   *
   * Note: Path should always begin with forward slash (/), this method will add the forward slash
   * if it is missing.
   *
   * @param {string=} path New path
   * @return {string} path
   */
  path: locationGetterSetter('$$path', function(path) {
    return path.charAt(0) == '/' ? path : '/' + path;
  }),

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#search
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * This method is getter / setter.
   *
   * Return search part (as object) of current url when called without any parameter.
   *
   * Change search part when called with parameter and return `$location`.
   *
   * @param {string|object<string,string>=} search New search params - string or hash object
   * @param {string=} paramValue If `search` is a string, then `paramValue` will override only a
   *    single search parameter. If the value is `null`, the parameter will be deleted.
   *
   * @return {string} search
   */
  search: function(search, paramValue) {
    if (isUndefined(search))
      return this.$$search;

    if (isDefined(paramValue)) {
      if (paramValue === null) {
        delete this.$$search[search];
      } else {
        this.$$search[search] = paramValue;
      }
    } else {
      this.$$search = isString(search) ? parseKeyValue(search) : search;
    }

    this.$$compose();
    return this;
  },

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#hash
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * This method is getter / setter.
   *
   * Return hash fragment when called without any parameter.
   *
   * Change hash fragment when called with parameter and return `$location`.
   *
   * @param {string=} hash New hash fragment
   * @return {string} hash
   */
  hash: locationGetterSetter('$$hash', identity),

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$location#replace
   * @methodOf ng.$location
   *
   * @description
   * If called, all changes to $location during current `$digest` will be replacing current history
   * record, instead of adding new one.
   */
  replace: function() {
    this.$$replace = true;
    return this;
  }
};

LocationHashbangUrl.prototype = inherit(LocationUrl.prototype);

function LocationHashbangInHtml5Url(url, hashPrefix, appBaseUrl, baseExtra) {
  LocationHashbangUrl.apply(this, arguments);


  this.$$rewriteAppUrl = function(absoluteLinkUrl) {
    if (absoluteLinkUrl.indexOf(appBaseUrl) == 0) {
      return appBaseUrl + baseExtra + '#' + hashPrefix  + absoluteLinkUrl.substr(appBaseUrl.length);
    }
  }
}

LocationHashbangInHtml5Url.prototype = inherit(LocationHashbangUrl.prototype);

function locationGetter(property) {
  return function() {
    return this[property];
  };
}


function locationGetterSetter(property, preprocess) {
  return function(value) {
    if (isUndefined(value))
      return this[property];

    this[property] = preprocess(value);
    this.$$compose();

    return this;
  };
}


/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$location
 *
 * @requires $browser
 * @requires $sniffer
 * @requires $rootElement
 *
 * @description
 * The $location service parses the URL in the browser address bar (based on the
 * {@link https://developer.mozilla.org/en/window.location window.location}) and makes the URL
 * available to your application. Changes to the URL in the address bar are reflected into
 * $location service and changes to $location are reflected into the browser address bar.
 *
 * **The $location service:**
 *
 * - Exposes the current URL in the browser address bar, so you can
 *   - Watch and observe the URL.
 *   - Change the URL.
 * - Synchronizes the URL with the browser when the user
 *   - Changes the address bar.
 *   - Clicks the back or forward button (or clicks a History link).
 *   - Clicks on a link.
 * - Represents the URL object as a set of methods (protocol, host, port, path, search, hash).
 *
 * For more information see {@link guide/dev_guide.services.$location Developer Guide: Angular
 * Services: Using $location}
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$locationProvider
 * @description
 * Use the `$locationProvider` to configure how the application deep linking paths are stored.
 */
function $LocationProvider(){
  var hashPrefix = '',
      html5Mode = false;

  /**
   * @ngdoc property
   * @name ng.$locationProvider#hashPrefix
   * @methodOf ng.$locationProvider
   * @description
   * @param {string=} prefix Prefix for hash part (containing path and search)
   * @returns {*} current value if used as getter or itself (chaining) if used as setter
   */
  this.hashPrefix = function(prefix) {
    if (isDefined(prefix)) {
      hashPrefix = prefix;
      return this;
    } else {
      return hashPrefix;
    }
  };

  /**
   * @ngdoc property
   * @name ng.$locationProvider#html5Mode
   * @methodOf ng.$locationProvider
   * @description
   * @param {string=} mode Use HTML5 strategy if available.
   * @returns {*} current value if used as getter or itself (chaining) if used as setter
   */
  this.html5Mode = function(mode) {
    if (isDefined(mode)) {
      html5Mode = mode;
      return this;
    } else {
      return html5Mode;
    }
  };

  this.$get = ['$rootScope', '$browser', '$sniffer', '$rootElement',
      function( $rootScope,   $browser,   $sniffer,   $rootElement) {
    var $location,
        basePath,
        pathPrefix,
        initUrl = $browser.url(),
        initUrlParts = matchUrl(initUrl),
        appBaseUrl;

    if (html5Mode) {
      basePath = $browser.baseHref() || '/';
      pathPrefix = pathPrefixFromBase(basePath);
      appBaseUrl =
          composeProtocolHostPort(initUrlParts.protocol, initUrlParts.host, initUrlParts.port) +
          pathPrefix + '/';

      if ($sniffer.history) {
        $location = new LocationUrl(
          convertToHtml5Url(initUrl, basePath, hashPrefix),
          pathPrefix, appBaseUrl);
      } else {
        $location = new LocationHashbangInHtml5Url(
          convertToHashbangUrl(initUrl, basePath, hashPrefix),
          hashPrefix, appBaseUrl, basePath.substr(pathPrefix.length + 1));
      }
    } else {
      appBaseUrl =
          composeProtocolHostPort(initUrlParts.protocol, initUrlParts.host, initUrlParts.port) +
          (initUrlParts.path || '') +
          (initUrlParts.search ? ('?' + initUrlParts.search) : '') +
          '#' + hashPrefix + '/';

      $location = new LocationHashbangUrl(initUrl, hashPrefix, appBaseUrl);
    }

    $rootElement.bind('click', function(event) {
      // TODO(vojta): rewrite link when opening in new tab/window (in legacy browser)
      // currently we open nice url link and redirect then

      if (event.ctrlKey || event.metaKey || event.which == 2) return;

      var elm = jqLite(event.target);

      // traverse the DOM up to find first A tag
      while (lowercase(elm[0].nodeName) !== 'a') {
        // ignore rewriting if no A tag (reached root element, or no parent - removed from document)
        if (elm[0] === $rootElement[0] || !(elm = elm.parent())[0]) return;
      }

      var absHref = elm.prop('href'),
          rewrittenUrl = $location.$$rewriteAppUrl(absHref);

      if (absHref && !elm.attr('target') && rewrittenUrl) {
        // update location manually
        $location.$$parse(rewrittenUrl);
        $rootScope.$apply();
        event.preventDefault();
        // hack to work around FF6 bug 684208 when scenario runner clicks on links
        window.angular['ff-684208-preventDefault'] = true;
      }
    });


    // rewrite hashbang url <> html5 url
    if ($location.absUrl() != initUrl) {
      $browser.url($location.absUrl(), true);
    }

    // update $location when $browser url changes
    $browser.onUrlChange(function(newUrl) {
      if ($location.absUrl() != newUrl) {
        if ($rootScope.$broadcast('$locationChangeStart', newUrl, $location.absUrl()).defaultPrevented) {
          $browser.url($location.absUrl());
          return;
        }
        $rootScope.$evalAsync(function() {
          var oldUrl = $location.absUrl();

          $location.$$parse(newUrl);
          afterLocationChange(oldUrl);
        });
        if (!$rootScope.$$phase) $rootScope.$digest();
      }
    });

    // update browser
    var changeCounter = 0;
    $rootScope.$watch(function $locationWatch() {
      var oldUrl = $browser.url();
      var currentReplace = $location.$$replace;

      if (!changeCounter || oldUrl != $location.absUrl()) {
        changeCounter++;
        $rootScope.$evalAsync(function() {
          if ($rootScope.$broadcast('$locationChangeStart', $location.absUrl(), oldUrl).
              defaultPrevented) {
            $location.$$parse(oldUrl);
          } else {
            $browser.url($location.absUrl(), currentReplace);
            afterLocationChange(oldUrl);
          }
        });
      }
      $location.$$replace = false;

      return changeCounter;
    });

    return $location;

    function afterLocationChange(oldUrl) {
      $rootScope.$broadcast('$locationChangeSuccess', $location.absUrl(), oldUrl);
    }
}];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$log
 * @requires $window
 *
 * @description
 * Simple service for logging. Default implementation writes the message
 * into the browser's console (if present).
 *
 * The main purpose of this service is to simplify debugging and troubleshooting.
 *
 * @example
   <example>
     <file name="script.js">
       function LogCtrl($scope, $log) {
         $scope.$log = $log;
         $scope.message = 'Hello World!';
       }
     </file>
     <file name="index.html">
       <div ng-controller="LogCtrl">
         <p>Reload this page with open console, enter text and hit the log button...</p>
         Message:
         <input type="text" ng-model="message"/>
         <button ng-click="$log.log(message)">log</button>
         <button ng-click="$log.warn(message)">warn</button>
         <button ng-click="$log.info(message)">info</button>
         <button ng-click="$log.error(message)">error</button>
       </div>
     </file>
   </example>
 */

function $LogProvider(){
  this.$get = ['$window', function($window){
    return {
      /**
       * @ngdoc method
       * @name ng.$log#log
       * @methodOf ng.$log
       *
       * @description
       * Write a log message
       */
      log: consoleLog('log'),

      /**
       * @ngdoc method
       * @name ng.$log#warn
       * @methodOf ng.$log
       *
       * @description
       * Write a warning message
       */
      warn: consoleLog('warn'),

      /**
       * @ngdoc method
       * @name ng.$log#info
       * @methodOf ng.$log
       *
       * @description
       * Write an information message
       */
      info: consoleLog('info'),

      /**
       * @ngdoc method
       * @name ng.$log#error
       * @methodOf ng.$log
       *
       * @description
       * Write an error message
       */
      error: consoleLog('error')
    };

    function formatError(arg) {
      if (arg instanceof Error) {
        if (arg.stack) {
          arg = (arg.message && arg.stack.indexOf(arg.message) === -1)
              ? 'Error: ' + arg.message + '\n' + arg.stack
              : arg.stack;
        } else if (arg.sourceURL) {
          arg = arg.message + '\n' + arg.sourceURL + ':' + arg.line;
        }
      }
      return arg;
    }

    function consoleLog(type) {
      var console = $window.console || {},
          logFn = console[type] || console.log || noop;

      if (logFn.apply) {
        return function() {
          var args = [];
          forEach(arguments, function(arg) {
            args.push(formatError(arg));
          });
          return logFn.apply(console, args);
        };
      }

      // we are IE which either doesn't have window.console => this is noop and we do nothing,
      // or we are IE where console.log doesn't have apply so we log at least first 2 args
      return function(arg1, arg2) {
        logFn(arg1, arg2);
      }
    }
  }];
}

var OPERATORS = {
    'null':function(){return null;},
    'true':function(){return true;},
    'false':function(){return false;},
    undefined:noop,
    '+':function(self, locals, a,b){
      a=a(self, locals); b=b(self, locals);
      if (isDefined(a)) {
        if (isDefined(b)) {
          return a + b;
        }
        return a;
      }
      return isDefined(b)?b:undefined;},
    '-':function(self, locals, a,b){a=a(self, locals); b=b(self, locals); return (isDefined(a)?a:0)-(isDefined(b)?b:0);},
    '*':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)*b(self, locals);},
    '/':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)/b(self, locals);},
    '%':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)%b(self, locals);},
    '^':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)^b(self, locals);},
    '=':noop,
    '==':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)==b(self, locals);},
    '!=':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)!=b(self, locals);},
    '<':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)<b(self, locals);},
    '>':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)>b(self, locals);},
    '<=':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)<=b(self, locals);},
    '>=':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)>=b(self, locals);},
    '&&':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)&&b(self, locals);},
    '||':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)||b(self, locals);},
    '&':function(self, locals, a,b){return a(self, locals)&b(self, locals);},
//    '|':function(self, locals, a,b){return a|b;},
    '|':function(self, locals, a,b){return b(self, locals)(self, locals, a(self, locals));},
    '!':function(self, locals, a){return !a(self, locals);}
};
var ESCAPE = {"n":"\n", "f":"\f", "r":"\r", "t":"\t", "v":"\v", "'":"'", '"':'"'};

function lex(text, csp){
  var tokens = [],
      token,
      index = 0,
      json = [],
      ch,
      lastCh = ':'; // can start regexp

  while (index < text.length) {
    ch = text.charAt(index);
    if (is('"\'')) {
      readString(ch);
    } else if (isNumber(ch) || is('.') && isNumber(peek())) {
      readNumber();
    } else if (isIdent(ch)) {
      readIdent();
      // identifiers can only be if the preceding char was a { or ,
      if (was('{,') && json[0]=='{' &&
         (token=tokens[tokens.length-1])) {
        token.json = token.text.indexOf('.') == -1;
      }
    } else if (is('(){}[].,;:')) {
      tokens.push({
        index:index,
        text:ch,
        json:(was(':[,') && is('{[')) || is('}]:,')
      });
      if (is('{[')) json.unshift(ch);
      if (is('}]')) json.shift();
      index++;
    } else if (isWhitespace(ch)) {
      index++;
      continue;
    } else {
      var ch2 = ch + peek(),
          fn = OPERATORS[ch],
          fn2 = OPERATORS[ch2];
      if (fn2) {
        tokens.push({index:index, text:ch2, fn:fn2});
        index += 2;
      } else if (fn) {
        tokens.push({index:index, text:ch, fn:fn, json: was('[,:') && is('+-')});
        index += 1;
      } else {
        throwError("Unexpected next character ", index, index+1);
      }
    }
    lastCh = ch;
  }
  return tokens;

  function is(chars) {
    return chars.indexOf(ch) != -1;
  }

  function was(chars) {
    return chars.indexOf(lastCh) != -1;
  }

  function peek() {
    return index + 1 < text.length ? text.charAt(index + 1) : false;
  }
  function isNumber(ch) {
    return '0' <= ch && ch <= '9';
  }
  function isWhitespace(ch) {
    return ch == ' ' || ch == '\r' || ch == '\t' ||
           ch == '\n' || ch == '\v' || ch == '\u00A0'; // IE treats non-breaking space as \u00A0
  }
  function isIdent(ch) {
    return 'a' <= ch && ch <= 'z' ||
           'A' <= ch && ch <= 'Z' ||
           '_' == ch || ch == '$';
  }
  function isExpOperator(ch) {
    return ch == '-' || ch == '+' || isNumber(ch);
  }

  function throwError(error, start, end) {
    end = end || index;
    throw Error("Lexer Error: " + error + " at column" +
        (isDefined(start)
            ? "s " + start +  "-" + index + " [" + text.substring(start, end) + "]"
            : " " + end) +
        " in expression [" + text + "].");
  }

  function readNumber() {
    var number = "";
    var start = index;
    while (index < text.length) {
      var ch = lowercase(text.charAt(index));
      if (ch == '.' || isNumber(ch)) {
        number += ch;
      } else {
        var peekCh = peek();
        if (ch == 'e' && isExpOperator(peekCh)) {
          number += ch;
        } else if (isExpOperator(ch) &&
            peekCh && isNumber(peekCh) &&
            number.charAt(number.length - 1) == 'e') {
          number += ch;
        } else if (isExpOperator(ch) &&
            (!peekCh || !isNumber(peekCh)) &&
            number.charAt(number.length - 1) == 'e') {
          throwError('Invalid exponent');
        } else {
          break;
        }
      }
      index++;
    }
    number = 1 * number;
    tokens.push({index:start, text:number, json:true,
      fn:function() {return number;}});
  }
  function readIdent() {
    var ident = "",
        start = index,
        lastDot, peekIndex, methodName, ch;

    while (index < text.length) {
      ch = text.charAt(index);
      if (ch == '.' || isIdent(ch) || isNumber(ch)) {
        if (ch == '.') lastDot = index;
        ident += ch;
      } else {
        break;
      }
      index++;
    }

    //check if this is not a method invocation and if it is back out to last dot
    if (lastDot) {
      peekIndex = index;
      while(peekIndex < text.length) {
        ch = text.charAt(peekIndex);
        if (ch == '(') {
          methodName = ident.substr(lastDot - start + 1);
          ident = ident.substr(0, lastDot - start);
          index = peekIndex;
          break;
        }
        if(isWhitespace(ch)) {
          peekIndex++;
        } else {
          break;
        }
      }
    }


    var token = {
      index:start,
      text:ident
    };

    if (OPERATORS.hasOwnProperty(ident)) {
      token.fn = token.json = OPERATORS[ident];
    } else {
      var getter = getterFn(ident, csp);
      token.fn = extend(function(self, locals) {
        return (getter(self, locals));
      }, {
        assign: function(self, value) {
          return setter(self, ident, value);
        }
      });
    }

    tokens.push(token);

    if (methodName) {
      tokens.push({
        index:lastDot,
        text: '.',
        json: false
      });
      tokens.push({
        index: lastDot + 1,
        text: methodName,
        json: false
      });
    }
  }

  function readString(quote) {
    var start = index;
    index++;
    var string = "";
    var rawString = quote;
    var escape = false;
    while (index < text.length) {
      var ch = text.charAt(index);
      rawString += ch;
      if (escape) {
        if (ch == 'u') {
          var hex = text.substring(index + 1, index + 5);
          if (!hex.match(/[\da-f]{4}/i))
            throwError( "Invalid unicode escape [\\u" + hex + "]");
          index += 4;
          string += String.fromCharCode(parseInt(hex, 16));
        } else {
          var rep = ESCAPE[ch];
          if (rep) {
            string += rep;
          } else {
            string += ch;
          }
        }
        escape = false;
      } else if (ch == '\\') {
        escape = true;
      } else if (ch == quote) {
        index++;
        tokens.push({
          index:start,
          text:rawString,
          string:string,
          json:true,
          fn:function() { return string; }
        });
        return;
      } else {
        string += ch;
      }
      index++;
    }
    throwError("Unterminated quote", start);
  }
}

/////////////////////////////////////////

function parser(text, json, $filter, csp){
  var ZERO = valueFn(0),
      value,
      tokens = lex(text, csp),
      assignment = _assignment,
      functionCall = _functionCall,
      fieldAccess = _fieldAccess,
      objectIndex = _objectIndex,
      filterChain = _filterChain;

  if(json){
    // The extra level of aliasing is here, just in case the lexer misses something, so that
    // we prevent any accidental execution in JSON.
    assignment = logicalOR;
    functionCall =
      fieldAccess =
      objectIndex =
      filterChain =
        function() { throwError("is not valid json", {text:text, index:0}); };
    value = primary();
  } else {
    value = statements();
  }
  if (tokens.length !== 0) {
    throwError("is an unexpected token", tokens[0]);
  }
  return value;

  ///////////////////////////////////
  function throwError(msg, token) {
    throw Error("Syntax Error: Token '" + token.text +
      "' " + msg + " at column " +
      (token.index + 1) + " of the expression [" +
      text + "] starting at [" + text.substring(token.index) + "].");
  }

  function peekToken() {
    if (tokens.length === 0)
      throw Error("Unexpected end of expression: " + text);
    return tokens[0];
  }

  function peek(e1, e2, e3, e4) {
    if (tokens.length > 0) {
      var token = tokens[0];
      var t = token.text;
      if (t==e1 || t==e2 || t==e3 || t==e4 ||
          (!e1 && !e2 && !e3 && !e4)) {
        return token;
      }
    }
    return false;
  }

  function expect(e1, e2, e3, e4){
    var token = peek(e1, e2, e3, e4);
    if (token) {
      if (json && !token.json) {
        throwError("is not valid json", token);
      }
      tokens.shift();
      return token;
    }
    return false;
  }

  function consume(e1){
    if (!expect(e1)) {
      throwError("is unexpected, expecting [" + e1 + "]", peek());
    }
  }

  function unaryFn(fn, right) {
    return function(self, locals) {
      return fn(self, locals, right);
    };
  }

  function binaryFn(left, fn, right) {
    return function(self, locals) {
      return fn(self, locals, left, right);
    };
  }

  function statements() {
    var statements = [];
    while(true) {
      if (tokens.length > 0 && !peek('}', ')', ';', ']'))
        statements.push(filterChain());
      if (!expect(';')) {
        // optimize for the common case where there is only one statement.
        // TODO(size): maybe we should not support multiple statements?
        return statements.length == 1
          ? statements[0]
          : function(self, locals){
            var value;
            for ( var i = 0; i < statements.length; i++) {
              var statement = statements[i];
              if (statement)
                value = statement(self, locals);
            }
            return value;
          };
      }
    }
  }

  function _filterChain() {
    var left = expression();
    var token;
    while(true) {
      if ((token = expect('|'))) {
        left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, filter());
      } else {
        return left;
      }
    }
  }

  function filter() {
    var token = expect();
    var fn = $filter(token.text);
    var argsFn = [];
    while(true) {
      if ((token = expect(':'))) {
        argsFn.push(expression());
      } else {
        var fnInvoke = function(self, locals, input){
          var args = [input];
          for ( var i = 0; i < argsFn.length; i++) {
            args.push(argsFn[i](self, locals));
          }
          return fn.apply(self, args);
        };
        return function() {
          return fnInvoke;
        };
      }
    }
  }

  function expression() {
    return assignment();
  }

  function _assignment() {
    var left = logicalOR();
    var right;
    var token;
    if ((token = expect('='))) {
      if (!left.assign) {
        throwError("implies assignment but [" +
          text.substring(0, token.index) + "] can not be assigned to", token);
      }
      right = logicalOR();
      return function(scope, locals){
        return left.assign(scope, right(scope, locals), locals);
      };
    } else {
      return left;
    }
  }

  function logicalOR() {
    var left = logicalAND();
    var token;
    while(true) {
      if ((token = expect('||'))) {
        left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, logicalAND());
      } else {
        return left;
      }
    }
  }

  function logicalAND() {
    var left = equality();
    var token;
    if ((token = expect('&&'))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, logicalAND());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function equality() {
    var left = relational();
    var token;
    if ((token = expect('==','!='))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, equality());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function relational() {
    var left = additive();
    var token;
    if ((token = expect('<', '>', '<=', '>='))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, relational());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function additive() {
    var left = multiplicative();
    var token;
    while ((token = expect('+','-'))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, multiplicative());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function multiplicative() {
    var left = unary();
    var token;
    while ((token = expect('*','/','%'))) {
      left = binaryFn(left, token.fn, unary());
    }
    return left;
  }

  function unary() {
    var token;
    if (expect('+')) {
      return primary();
    } else if ((token = expect('-'))) {
      return binaryFn(ZERO, token.fn, unary());
    } else if ((token = expect('!'))) {
      return unaryFn(token.fn, unary());
    } else {
      return primary();
    }
  }


  function primary() {
    var primary;
    if (expect('(')) {
      primary = filterChain();
      consume(')');
    } else if (expect('[')) {
      primary = arrayDeclaration();
    } else if (expect('{')) {
      primary = object();
    } else {
      var token = expect();
      primary = token.fn;
      if (!primary) {
        throwError("not a primary expression", token);
      }
    }

    var next, context;
    while ((next = expect('(', '[', '.'))) {
      if (next.text === '(') {
        primary = functionCall(primary, context);
        context = null;
      } else if (next.text === '[') {
        context = primary;
        primary = objectIndex(primary);
      } else if (next.text === '.') {
        context = primary;
        primary = fieldAccess(primary);
      } else {
        throwError("IMPOSSIBLE");
      }
    }
    return primary;
  }

  function _fieldAccess(object) {
    var field = expect().text;
    var getter = getterFn(field, csp);
    return extend(
        function(scope, locals, self) {
          return getter(self || object(scope, locals), locals);
        },
        {
          assign:function(scope, value, locals) {
            return setter(object(scope, locals), field, value);
          }
        }
    );
  }

  function _objectIndex(obj) {
    var indexFn = expression();
    consume(']');
    return extend(
      function(self, locals){
        var o = obj(self, locals),
            i = indexFn(self, locals),
            v, p;

        if (!o) return undefined;
        v = o[i];
        if (v && v.then) {
          p = v;
          if (!('$$v' in v)) {
            p.$$v = undefined;
            p.then(function(val) { p.$$v = val; });
          }
          v = v.$$v;
        }
        return v;
      }, {
        assign:function(self, value, locals){
          return obj(self, locals)[indexFn(self, locals)] = value;
        }
      });
  }

  function _functionCall(fn, contextGetter) {
    var argsFn = [];
    if (peekToken().text != ')') {
      do {
        argsFn.push(expression());
      } while (expect(','));
    }
    consume(')');
    return function(scope, locals){
      var args = [],
          context = contextGetter ? contextGetter(scope, locals) : scope;

      for ( var i = 0; i < argsFn.length; i++) {
        args.push(argsFn[i](scope, locals));
      }
      var fnPtr = fn(scope, locals, context) || noop;
      // IE stupidity!
      return fnPtr.apply
          ? fnPtr.apply(context, args)
          : fnPtr(args[0], args[1], args[2], args[3], args[4]);
    };
  }

  // This is used with json array declaration
  function arrayDeclaration () {
    var elementFns = [];
    if (peekToken().text != ']') {
      do {
        elementFns.push(expression());
      } while (expect(','));
    }
    consume(']');
    return function(self, locals){
      var array = [];
      for ( var i = 0; i < elementFns.length; i++) {
        array.push(elementFns[i](self, locals));
      }
      return array;
    };
  }

  function object () {
    var keyValues = [];
    if (peekToken().text != '}') {
      do {
        var token = expect(),
        key = token.string || token.text;
        consume(":");
        var value = expression();
        keyValues.push({key:key, value:value});
      } while (expect(','));
    }
    consume('}');
    return function(self, locals){
      var object = {};
      for ( var i = 0; i < keyValues.length; i++) {
        var keyValue = keyValues[i];
        object[keyValue.key] = keyValue.value(self, locals);
      }
      return object;
    };
  }
}

//////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Parser helper functions
//////////////////////////////////////////////////

function setter(obj, path, setValue) {
  var element = path.split('.');
  for (var i = 0; element.length > 1; i++) {
    var key = element.shift();
    var propertyObj = obj[key];
    if (!propertyObj) {
      propertyObj = {};
      obj[key] = propertyObj;
    }
    obj = propertyObj;
  }
  obj[element.shift()] = setValue;
  return setValue;
}

var getterFnCache = {};

/**
 * Implementation of the "Black Hole" variant from:
 * - http://jsperf.com/angularjs-parse-getter/4
 * - http://jsperf.com/path-evaluation-simplified/7
 */
function cspSafeGetterFn(key0, key1, key2, key3, key4) {
  return function(scope, locals) {
    var pathVal = (locals && locals.hasOwnProperty(key0)) ? locals : scope,
        promise;

    if (pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key0];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    if (!key1 || pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key1];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    if (!key2 || pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key2];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    if (!key3 || pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key3];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    if (!key4 || pathVal === null || pathVal === undefined) return pathVal;

    pathVal = pathVal[key4];
    if (pathVal && pathVal.then) {
      if (!("$$v" in pathVal)) {
        promise = pathVal;
        promise.$$v = undefined;
        promise.then(function(val) { promise.$$v = val; });
      }
      pathVal = pathVal.$$v;
    }
    return pathVal;
  };
}

function getterFn(path, csp) {
  if (getterFnCache.hasOwnProperty(path)) {
    return getterFnCache[path];
  }

  var pathKeys = path.split('.'),
      pathKeysLength = pathKeys.length,
      fn;

  if (csp) {
    fn = (pathKeysLength < 6)
        ? cspSafeGetterFn(pathKeys[0], pathKeys[1], pathKeys[2], pathKeys[3], pathKeys[4])
        : function(scope, locals) {
          var i = 0, val;
          do {
            val = cspSafeGetterFn(
                    pathKeys[i++], pathKeys[i++], pathKeys[i++], pathKeys[i++], pathKeys[i++]
                  )(scope, locals);

            locals = undefined; // clear after first iteration
            scope = val;
          } while (i < pathKeysLength);
          return val;
        }
  } else {
    var code = 'var l, fn, p;\n';
    forEach(pathKeys, function(key, index) {
      code += 'if(s === null || s === undefined) return s;\n' +
              'l=s;\n' +
              's='+ (index
                      // we simply dereference 's' on any .dot notation
                      ? 's'
                      // but if we are first then we check locals first, and if so read it first
                      : '((k&&k.hasOwnProperty("' + key + '"))?k:s)') + '["' + key + '"]' + ';\n' +
              'if (s && s.then) {\n' +
                ' if (!("$$v" in s)) {\n' +
                  ' p=s;\n' +
                  ' p.$$v = undefined;\n' +
                  ' p.then(function(v) {p.$$v=v;});\n' +
                  '}\n' +
                ' s=s.$$v\n' +
              '}\n';
    });
    code += 'return s;';
    fn = Function('s', 'k', code); // s=scope, k=locals
    fn.toString = function() { return code; };
  }

  return getterFnCache[path] = fn;
}

///////////////////////////////////

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.$parse
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 *
 * Converts Angular {@link guide/expression expression} into a function.
 *
 * <pre>
 *   var getter = $parse('user.name');
 *   var setter = getter.assign;
 *   var context = {user:{name:'angular'}};
 *   var locals = {user:{name:'local'}};
 *
 *   expect(getter(context)).toEqual('angular');
 *   setter(context, 'newValue');
 *   expect(context.user.name).toEqual('newValue');
 *   expect(getter(context, locals)).toEqual('local');
 * </pre>
 *
 *
 * @param {string} expression String expression to compile.
 * @returns {function(context, locals)} a function which represents the compiled expression:
 *
 *    * `context` – `{object}` – an object against which any expressions embedded in the strings
 *      are evaluated against (tipically a scope object).
 *    * `locals` – `{object=}` – local variables context object, useful for overriding values in
 *      `context`.
 *
 *    The return function also has an `assign` property, if the expression is assignable, which
 *    allows one to set values to expressions.
 *
 */
function $ParseProvider() {
  var cache = {};
  this.$get = ['$filter', '$sniffer', function($filter, $sniffer) {
    return function(exp) {
      switch(typeof exp) {
        case 'string':
          return cache.hasOwnProperty(exp)
            ? cache[exp]
            : cache[exp] =  parser(exp, false, $filter, $sniffer.csp);
        case 'function':
          return exp;
        default:
          return noop;
      }
    };
  }];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc service
 * @name ng.$q
 * @requires $rootScope
 *
 * @description
 * A promise/deferred implementation inspired by [Kris Kowal's Q](https://github.com/kriskowal/q).
 *
 * [The CommonJS Promise proposal](http://wiki.commonjs.org/wiki/Promises) describes a promise as an
 * interface for interacting with an object that represents the result of an action that is
 * performed asynchronously, and may or may not be finished at any given point in time.
 *
 * From the perspective of dealing with error handling, deferred and promise APIs are to
 * asynchronous programming what `try`, `catch` and `throw` keywords are to synchronous programming.
 *
 * <pre>
 *   // for the purpose of this example let's assume that variables `$q` and `scope` are
 *   // available in the current lexical scope (they could have been injected or passed in).
 *
 *   function asyncGreet(name) {
 *     var deferred = $q.defer();
 *
 *     setTimeout(function() {
 *       // since this fn executes async in a future turn of the event loop, we need to wrap
 *       // our code into an $apply call so that the model changes are properly observed.
 *       scope.$apply(function() {
 *         if (okToGreet(name)) {
 *           deferred.resolve('Hello, ' + name + '!');
 *         } else {
 *           deferred.reject('Greeting ' + name + ' is not allowed.');
 *         }
 *       });
 *     }, 1000);
 *
 *     return deferred.promise;
 *   }
 *
 *   var promise = asyncGreet('Robin Hood');
 *   promise.then(function(greeting) {
 *     alert('Success: ' + greeting);
 *   }, function(reason) {
 *     alert('Failed: ' + reason);
 *   });
 * </pre>
 *
 * At first it might not be obvious why this extra complexity is worth the trouble. The payoff
 * comes in the way of
 * [guarantees that promise and deferred APIs make](https://github.com/kriskowal/uncommonjs/blob/master/promises/specification.md).
 *
 * Additionally the promise api allows for composition that is very hard to do with the
 * traditional callback ([CPS](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuation-passing_style)) approach.
 * For more on this please see the [Q documentation](https://github.com/kriskowal/q) especially the
 * section on serial or parallel joining of promises.
 *
 *
 * # The Deferred API
 *
 * A new instance of deferred is constructed by calling `$q.defer()`.
 *
 * The purpose of the deferred object is to expose the associated Promise instance as well as APIs
 * that can be used for signaling the successful or unsuccessful completion of the task.
 *
 * **Methods**
 *
 * - `resolve(value)` – resolves the derived promise with the `value`. If the value is a rejection
 *   constructed via `$q.reject`, the promise will be rejected instead.
 * - `reject(reason)` – rejects the derived promise with the `reason`. This is equivalent to
 *   resolving it with a rejection constructed via `$q.reject`.
 *
 * **Properties**
 *
 * - promise – `{Promise}` – promise object associated with this deferred.
 *
 *
 * # The Promise API
 *
 * A new promise instance is created when a deferred instance is created and can be retrieved by
 * calling `deferred.promise`.
 *
 * The purpose of the promise object is to allow for interested parties to get access to the result
 * of the deferred task when it completes.
 *
 * **Methods**
 *
 * - `then(successCallback, errorCallback)` – regardless of when the promise was or will be resolved
 *   or rejected, `then` calls one of the success or error callbacks asynchronously as soon as the result
 *   is available. The callbacks are called with a single argument: the result or rejection reason.
 *
 *   This method *returns a new promise* which is resolved or rejected via the return value of the
 *   `successCallback` or `errorCallback`.
 *
 *
 * # Chaining promises
 *
 * Because calling the `then` method of a promise returns a new derived promise, it is easily possible
 * to create a chain of promises:
 *
 * <pre>
 *   promiseB = promiseA.then(function(result) {
 *     return result + 1;
 *   });
 *
 *   // promiseB will be resolved immediately after promiseA is resolved and its value
 *   // will be the result of promiseA incremented by 1
 * </pre>
 *
 * It is possible to create chains of any length and since a promise can be resolved with another
 * promise (which will defer its resolution further), it is possible to pause/defer resolution of
 * the promises at any point in the chain. This makes it possible to implement powerful APIs like
 * $http's response interceptors.
 *
 *
 * # Differences between Kris Kowal's Q and $q
 *
 *  There are three main differences:
 *
 * - $q is integrated with the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope} Scope model observation
 *   mechanism in angular, which means faster propagation of resolution or rejection into your
 *   models and avoiding unnecessary browser repaints, which would result in flickering UI.
 * - $q promises are recognized by the templating engine in angular, which means that in templates
 *   you can treat promises attached to a scope as if they were the resulting values.
 * - Q has many more features than $q, but that comes at a cost of bytes. $q is tiny, but contains
 *   all the important functionality needed for common async tasks.
 * 
 *  # Testing
 * 
 *  <pre>
 *    it('should simulate promise', inject(function($q, $rootScope) {
 *      var deferred = $q.defer();
 *      var promise = deferred.promise;
 *      var resolvedValue;
 * 
 *      promise.then(function(value) { resolvedValue = value; });
 *      expect(resolvedValue).toBeUndefined();
 * 
 *      // Simulate resolving of promise
 *      deferred.resolve(123);
 *      // Note that the 'then' function does not get called synchronously.
 *      // This is because we want the promise API to always be async, whether or not
 *      // it got called synchronously or asynchronously.
 *      expect(resolvedValue).toBeUndefined();
 * 
 *      // Propagate promise resolution to 'then' functions using $apply().
 *      $rootScope.$apply();
 *      expect(resolvedValue).toEqual(123);
 *    });
 *  </pre>
 */
function $QProvider() {

  this.$get = ['$rootScope', '$exceptionHandler', function($rootScope, $exceptionHandler) {
    return qFactory(function(callback) {
      $rootScope.$evalAsync(callback);
    }, $exceptionHandler);
  }];
}


/**
 * Constructs a promise manager.
 *
 * @param {function(function)} nextTick Function for executing functions in the next turn.
 * @param {function(...*)} exceptionHandler Function into which unexpected exceptions are passed for
 *     debugging purposes.
 * @returns {object} Promise manager.
 */
function qFactory(nextTick, exceptionHandler) {

  /**
   * @ngdoc
   * @name ng.$q#defer
   * @methodOf ng.$q
   * @description
   * Creates a `Deferred` object which represents a task which will finish in the future.
   *
   * @returns {Deferred} Returns a new instance of deferred.
   */
  var defer = function() {
    var pending = [],
        value, deferred;

    deferred = {

      resolve: function(val) {
        if (pending) {
          var callbacks = pending;
          pending = undefined;
          value = ref(val);

          if (callbacks.length) {
            nextTick(function() {
              var callback;
              for (var i = 0, ii = callbacks.length; i < ii; i++) {
                callback = callbacks[i];
                value.then(callback[0], callback[1]);
              }
            });
          }
        }
      },


      reject: function(reason) {
        deferred.resolve(reject(reason));
      },


      promise: {
        then: function(callback, errback) {
          var result = defer();

          var wrappedCallback = function(value) {
            try {
              result.resolve((callback || defaultCallback)(value));
            } catch(e) {
              result.reject(e);
              exceptionHandler(e);
            }
          };

          var wrappedErrback = function(reason) {
            try {
              result.resolve((errback || defaultErrback)(reason));
            } catch(e) {
              result.reject(e);
              exceptionHandler(e);
            }
          };

          if (pending) {
            pending.push([wrappedCallback, wrappedErrback]);
          } else {
            value.then(wrappedCallback, wrappedErrback);
          }

          return result.promise;
        }
      }
    };

    return deferred;
  };


  var ref = function(value) {
    if (value && value.then) return value;
    return {
      then: function(callback) {
        var result = defer();
        nextTick(function() {
          result.resolve(callback(value));
        });
        return result.promise;
      }
    };
  };


  /**
   * @ngdoc
   * @name ng.$q#reject
   * @methodOf ng.$q
   * @description
   * Creates a promise that is resolved as rejected with the specified `reason`. This api should be
   * used to forward rejection in a chain of promises. If you are dealing with the last promise in
   * a promise chain, you don't need to worry about it.
   *
   * When comparing deferreds/promises to the familiar behavior of try/catch/throw, think of
   * `reject` as the `throw` keyword in JavaScript. This also means that if you "catch" an error via
   * a promise error callback and you want to forward the error to the promise derived from the
   * current promise, you have to "rethrow" the error by returning a rejection constructed via
   * `reject`.
   *
   * <pre>
   *   promiseB = promiseA.then(function(result) {
   *     // success: do something and resolve promiseB
   *     //          with the old or a new result
   *     return result;
   *   }, function(reason) {
   *     // error: handle the error if possible and
   *     //        resolve promiseB with newPromiseOrValue,
   *     //        otherwise forward the rejection to promiseB
   *     if (canHandle(reason)) {
   *      // handle the error and recover
   *      return newPromiseOrValue;
   *     }
   *     return $q.reject(reason);
   *   });
   * </pre>
   *
   * @param {*} reason Constant, message, exception or an object representing the rejection reason.
   * @returns {Promise} Returns a promise that was already resolved as rejected with the `reason`.
   */
  var reject = function(reason) {
    return {
      then: function(callback, errback) {
        var result = defer();
        nextTick(function() {
          result.resolve((errback || defaultErrback)(reason));
        });
        return result.promise;
      }
    };
  };


  /**
   * @ngdoc
   * @name ng.$q#when
   * @methodOf ng.$q
   * @description
   * Wraps an object that might be a value or a (3rd party) then-able promise into a $q promise.
   * This is useful when you are dealing with an object that might or might not be a promise, or if
   * the promise comes from a source that can't be trusted.
   *
   * @param {*} value Value or a promise
   * @returns {Promise} Returns a promise of the passed value or promise
   */
  var when = function(value, callback, errback) {
    var result = defer(),
        done;

    var wrappedCallback = function(value) {
      try {
        return (callback || defaultCallback)(value);
      } catch (e) {
        exceptionHandler(e);
        return reject(e);
      }
    };

    var wrappedErrback = function(reason) {
      try {
        return (errback || defaultErrback)(reason);
      } catch (e) {
        exceptionHandler(e);
        return reject(e);
      }
    };

    nextTick(function() {
      ref(value).then(function(value) {
        if (done) return;
        done = true;
        result.resolve(ref(value).then(wrappedCallback, wrappedErrback));
      }, function(reason) {
        if (done) return;
        done = true;
        result.resolve(wrappedErrback(reason));
      });
    });

    return result.promise;
  };


  function defaultCallback(value) {
    return value;
  }


  function defaultErrback(reason) {
    return reject(reason);
  }


  /**
   * @ngdoc
   * @name ng.$q#all
   * @methodOf ng.$q
   * @description
   * Combines multiple promises into a single promise that is resolved when all of the input
   * promises are resolved.
   *
   * @param {Array.<Promise>} promises An array of promises.
   * @returns {Promise} Returns a single promise that will be resolved with an array of values,
   *   each value corresponding to the promise at the same index in the `promises` array. If any of
   *   the promises is resolved with a rejection, this resulting promise will be resolved with the
   *   same rejection.
   */
  function all(promises) {
    var deferred = defer(),
        counter = promises.length,
        results = [];

    if (counter) {
      forEach(promises, function(promise, index) {
        ref(promise).then(function(value) {
          if (index in results) return;
          results[index] = value;
          if (!(--counter)) deferred.resolve(results);
        }, function(reason) {
          if (index in results) return;
          deferred.reject(reason);
        });
      });
    } else {
      deferred.resolve(results);
    }

    return deferred.promise;
  }

  return {
    defer: defer,
    reject: reject,
    when: when,
    all: all
  };
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$routeProvider
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 *
 * Used for configuring routes. See {@link ng.$route $route} for an example.
 */
function $RouteProvider(){
  var routes = {};

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$routeProvider#when
   * @methodOf ng.$routeProvider
   *
   * @param {string} path Route path (matched against `$location.path`). If `$location.path`
   *    contains redundant trailing slash or is missing one, the route will still match and the
   *    `$location.path` will be updated to add or drop the trailing slash to exactly match the
   *    route definition.
   *
   *    `path` can contain named groups starting with a colon (`:name`). All characters up to the
   *    next slash are matched and stored in `$routeParams` under the given `name` after the route
   *    is resolved.
   *
   * @param {Object} route Mapping information to be assigned to `$route.current` on route
   *    match.
   *
   *    Object properties:
   *
   *    - `controller` – `{(string|function()=}` – Controller fn that should be associated with newly
   *      created scope or the name of a {@link angular.Module#controller registered controller}
   *      if passed as a string.
   *    - `template` – `{string=}` –  html template as a string that should be used by
   *      {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView} or
   *      {@link ng.directive:ngInclude ngInclude} directives.
   *      this property takes precedence over `templateUrl`.
   *    - `templateUrl` – `{string=}` – path to an html template that should be used by
   *      {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView}.
   *    - `resolve` - `{Object.<string, function>=}` - An optional map of dependencies which should
   *      be injected into the controller. If any of these dependencies are promises, they will be
   *      resolved and converted to a value before the controller is instantiated and the
   *      `$routeChangeSuccess` event is fired. The map object is:
   *
   *      - `key` – `{string}`: a name of a dependency to be injected into the controller.
   *      - `factory` - `{string|function}`: If `string` then it is an alias for a service.
   *        Otherwise if function, then it is {@link api/AUTO.$injector#invoke injected}
   *        and the return value is treated as the dependency. If the result is a promise, it is resolved
   *        before its value is injected into the controller. Be aware that `ngRoute.$routeParams` will
   *        still refer to the previous route within these resolve functions.  Use `$route.current.params`
   *        to access the new route parameters, instead.
   *
   *    - `redirectTo` – {(string|function())=} – value to update
   *      {@link ng.$location $location} path with and trigger route redirection.
   *
   *      If `redirectTo` is a function, it will be called with the following parameters:
   *
   *      - `{Object.<string>}` - route parameters extracted from the current
   *        `$location.path()` by applying the current route templateUrl.
   *      - `{string}` - current `$location.path()`
   *      - `{Object}` - current `$location.search()`
   *
   *      The custom `redirectTo` function is expected to return a string which will be used
   *      to update `$location.path()` and `$location.search()`.
   *
   *    - `[reloadOnSearch=true]` - {boolean=} - reload route when only $location.search()
   *    changes.
   *
   *      If the option is set to `false` and url in the browser changes, then
   *      `$routeUpdate` event is broadcasted on the root scope.
   *
   * @returns {Object} self
   *
   * @description
   * Adds a new route definition to the `$route` service.
   */
  this.when = function(path, route) {
    routes[path] = extend({reloadOnSearch: true}, route);

    // create redirection for trailing slashes
    if (path) {
      var redirectPath = (path[path.length-1] == '/')
          ? path.substr(0, path.length-1)
          : path +'/';

      routes[redirectPath] = {redirectTo: path};
    }

    return this;
  };

  /**
   * @ngdoc method
   * @name ng.$routeProvider#otherwise
   * @methodOf ng.$routeProvider
   *
   * @description
   * Sets route definition that will be used on route change when no other route definition
   * is matched.
   *
   * @param {Object} params Mapping information to be assigned to `$route.current`.
   * @returns {Object} self
   */
  this.otherwise = function(params) {
    this.when(null, params);
    return this;
  };


  this.$get = ['$rootScope', '$location', '$routeParams', '$q', '$injector', '$http', '$templateCache',
      function( $rootScope,   $location,   $routeParams,   $q,   $injector,   $http,   $templateCache) {

    /**
     * @ngdoc object
     * @name ng.$route
     * @requires $location
     * @requires $routeParams
     *
     * @property {Object} current Reference to the current route definition.
     * The route definition contains:
     *
     *   - `controller`: The controller constructor as define in route definition.
     *   - `locals`: A map of locals which is used by {@link ng.$controller $controller} service for
     *     controller instantiation. The `locals` contain
     *     the resolved values of the `resolve` map. Additionally the `locals` also contain:
     *
     *     - `$scope` - The current route scope.
     *     - `$template` - The current route template HTML.
     *
     * @property {Array.<Object>} routes Array of all configured routes.
     *
     * @description
     * Is used for deep-linking URLs to controllers and views (HTML partials).
     * It watches `$location.url()` and tries to map the path to an existing route definition.
     *
     * You can define routes through {@link ng.$routeProvider $routeProvider}'s API.
     *
     * The `$route` service is typically used in conjunction with {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView}
     * directive and the {@link ng.$routeParams $routeParams} service.
     *
     * @example
       This example shows how changing the URL hash causes the `$route` to match a route against the
       URL, and the `ngView` pulls in the partial.

       Note that this example is using {@link ng.directive:script inlined templates}
       to get it working on jsfiddle as well.

     <example module="ngView">
       <file name="index.html">
         <div ng-controller="MainCntl">
           Choose:
           <a href="Book/Moby">Moby</a> |
           <a href="Book/Moby/ch/1">Moby: Ch1</a> |
           <a href="Book/Gatsby">Gatsby</a> |
           <a href="Book/Gatsby/ch/4?key=value">Gatsby: Ch4</a> |
           <a href="Book/Scarlet">Scarlet Letter</a><br/>

           <div ng-view></div>
           <hr />

           <pre>$location.path() = {{$location.path()}}</pre>
           <pre>$route.current.templateUrl = {{$route.current.templateUrl}}</pre>
           <pre>$route.current.params = {{$route.current.params}}</pre>
           <pre>$route.current.scope.name = {{$route.current.scope.name}}</pre>
           <pre>$routeParams = {{$routeParams}}</pre>
         </div>
       </file>

       <file name="book.html">
         controller: {{name}}<br />
         Book Id: {{params.bookId}}<br />
       </file>

       <file name="chapter.html">
         controller: {{name}}<br />
         Book Id: {{params.bookId}}<br />
         Chapter Id: {{params.chapterId}}
       </file>

       <file name="script.js">
         angular.module('ngView', [], function($routeProvider, $locationProvider) {
           $routeProvider.when('/Book/:bookId', {
             templateUrl: 'book.html',
             controller: BookCntl,
             resolve: {
               // I will cause a 1 second delay
               delay: function($q, $timeout) {
                 var delay = $q.defer();
                 $timeout(delay.resolve, 1000);
                 return delay.promise;
               }
             }
           });
           $routeProvider.when('/Book/:bookId/ch/:chapterId', {
             templateUrl: 'chapter.html',
             controller: ChapterCntl
           });

           // configure html5 to get links working on jsfiddle
           $locationProvider.html5Mode(true);
         });

         function MainCntl($scope, $route, $routeParams, $location) {
           $scope.$route = $route;
           $scope.$location = $location;
           $scope.$routeParams = $routeParams;
         }

         function BookCntl($scope, $routeParams) {
           $scope.name = "BookCntl";
           $scope.params = $routeParams;
         }

         function ChapterCntl($scope, $routeParams) {
           $scope.name = "ChapterCntl";
           $scope.params = $routeParams;
         }
       </file>

       <file name="scenario.js">
         it('should load and compile correct template', function() {
           element('a:contains("Moby: Ch1")').click();
           var content = element('.doc-example-live [ng-view]').text();
           expect(content).toMatch(/controller\: ChapterCntl/);
           expect(content).toMatch(/Book Id\: Moby/);
           expect(content).toMatch(/Chapter Id\: 1/);

           element('a:contains("Scarlet")').click();
           sleep(2); // promises are not part of scenario waiting
           content = element('.doc-example-live [ng-view]').text();
           expect(content).toMatch(/controller\: BookCntl/);
           expect(content).toMatch(/Book Id\: Scarlet/);
         });
       </file>
     </example>
     */

    /**
     * @ngdoc event
     * @name ng.$route#$routeChangeStart
     * @eventOf ng.$route
     * @eventType broadcast on root scope
     * @description
     * Broadcasted before a route change. At this  point the route services starts
     * resolving all of the dependencies needed for the route change to occurs.
     * Typically this involves fetching the view template as well as any dependencies
     * defined in `resolve` route property. Once  all of the dependencies are resolved
     * `$routeChangeSuccess` is fired.
     *
     * @param {Route} next Future route information.
     * @param {Route} current Current route information.
     */

    /**
     * @ngdoc event
     * @name ng.$route#$routeChangeSuccess
     * @eventOf ng.$route
     * @eventType broadcast on root scope
     * @description
     * Broadcasted after a route dependencies are resolved.
     * {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView} listens for the directive
     * to instantiate the controller and render the view.
     *
     * @param {Object} angularEvent Synthetic event object.
     * @param {Route} current Current route information.
     * @param {Route|Undefined} previous Previous route information, or undefined if current is first route entered.
     */

    /**
     * @ngdoc event
     * @name ng.$route#$routeChangeError
     * @eventOf ng.$route
     * @eventType broadcast on root scope
     * @description
     * Broadcasted if any of the resolve promises are rejected.
     *
     * @param {Route} current Current route information.
     * @param {Route} previous Previous route information.
     * @param {Route} rejection Rejection of the promise. Usually the error of the failed promise.
     */

    /**
     * @ngdoc event
     * @name ng.$route#$routeUpdate
     * @eventOf ng.$route
     * @eventType broadcast on root scope
     * @description
     *
     * The `reloadOnSearch` property has been set to false, and we are reusing the same
     * instance of the Controller.
     */

    var forceReload = false,
        $route = {
          routes: routes,

          /**
           * @ngdoc method
           * @name ng.$route#reload
           * @methodOf ng.$route
           *
           * @description
           * Causes `$route` service to reload the current route even if
           * {@link ng.$location $location} hasn't changed.
           *
           * As a result of that, {@link ng.directive:ngView ngView}
           * creates new scope, reinstantiates the controller.
           */
          reload: function() {
            forceReload = true;
            $rootScope.$evalAsync(updateRoute);
          }
        };

    $rootScope.$on('$locationChangeSuccess', updateRoute);

    return $route;

    /////////////////////////////////////////////////////

    /**
     * @param on {string} current url
     * @param when {string} route when template to match the url against
     * @return {?Object}
     */
    function switchRouteMatcher(on, when) {
      // TODO(i): this code is convoluted and inefficient, we should construct the route matching
      //   regex only once and then reuse it

      // Escape regexp special characters.
      when = '^' + when.replace(/[-\/\\^$*+?.()|[\]{}]/g, "\\$&") + '$';
      var regex = '',
          params = [],
          dst = {};

      var re = /:(\w+)/g,
          paramMatch,
          lastMatchedIndex = 0;

      while ((paramMatch = re.exec(when)) !== null) {
        // Find each :param in `when` and replace it with a capturing group.
        // Append all other sections of when unchanged.
        regex += when.slice(lastMatchedIndex, paramMatch.index);
        regex += '([^\\/]*)';
        params.push(paramMatch[1]);
        lastMatchedIndex = re.lastIndex;
      }
      // Append trailing path part.
      regex += when.substr(lastMatchedIndex);

      var match = on.match(new RegExp(regex));
      if (match) {
        forEach(params, function(name, index) {
          dst[name] = match[index + 1];
        });
      }
      return match ? dst : null;
    }

    function updateRoute() {
      var next = parseRoute(),
          last = $route.current;

      if (next && last && next.$$route === last.$$route
          && equals(next.pathParams, last.pathParams) && !next.reloadOnSearch && !forceReload) {
        last.params = next.params;
        copy(last.params, $routeParams);
        $rootScope.$broadcast('$routeUpdate', last);
      } else if (next || last) {
        forceReload = false;
        $rootScope.$broadcast('$routeChangeStart', next, last);
        $route.current = next;
        if (next) {
          if (next.redirectTo) {
            if (isString(next.redirectTo)) {
              $location.path(interpolate(next.redirectTo, next.params)).search(next.params)
                       .replace();
            } else {
              $location.url(next.redirectTo(next.pathParams, $location.path(), $location.search()))
                       .replace();
            }
          }
        }

        $q.when(next).
          then(function() {
            if (next) {
              var keys = [],
                  values = [],
                  template;

              forEach(next.resolve || {}, function(value, key) {
                keys.push(key);
                values.push(isString(value) ? $injector.get(value) : $injector.invoke(value));
              });
              if (isDefined(template = next.template)) {
              } else if (isDefined(template = next.templateUrl)) {
                template = $http.get(template, {cache: $templateCache}).
                    then(function(response) { return response.data; });
              }
              if (isDefined(template)) {
                keys.push('$template');
                values.push(template);
              }
              return $q.all(values).then(function(values) {
                var locals = {};
                forEach(values, function(value, index) {
                  locals[keys[index]] = value;
                });
                return locals;
              });
            }
          }).
          // after route change
          then(function(locals) {
            if (next == $route.current) {
              if (next) {
                next.locals = locals;
                copy(next.params, $routeParams);
              }
              $rootScope.$broadcast('$routeChangeSuccess', next, last);
            }
          }, function(error) {
            if (next == $route.current) {
              $rootScope.$broadcast('$routeChangeError', next, last, error);
            }
          });
      }
    }


    /**
     * @returns the current active route, by matching it against the URL
     */
    function parseRoute() {
      // Match a route
      var params, match;
      forEach(routes, function(route, path) {
        if (!match && (params = switchRouteMatcher($location.path(), path))) {
          match = inherit(route, {
            params: extend({}, $location.search(), params),
            pathParams: params});
          match.$$route = route;
        }
      });
      // No route matched; fallback to "otherwise" route
      return match || routes[null] && inherit(routes[null], {params: {}, pathParams:{}});
    }

    /**
     * @returns interpolation of the redirect path with the parametrs
     */
    function interpolate(string, params) {
      var result = [];
      forEach((string||'').split(':'), function(segment, i) {
        if (i == 0) {
          result.push(segment);
        } else {
          var segmentMatch = segment.match(/(\w+)(.*)/);
          var key = segmentMatch[1];
          result.push(params[key]);
          result.push(segmentMatch[2] || '');
          delete params[key];
        }
      });
      return result.join('');
    }
  }];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$routeParams
 * @requires $route
 *
 * @description
 * Current set of route parameters. The route parameters are a combination of the
 * {@link ng.$location $location} `search()`, and `path()`. The `path` parameters
 * are extracted when the {@link ng.$route $route} path is matched.
 *
 * In case of parameter name collision, `path` params take precedence over `search` params.
 *
 * The service guarantees that the identity of the `$routeParams` object will remain unchanged
 * (but its properties will likely change) even when a route change occurs.
 *
 * Note that the `$routeParams` are only updated *after* a route change completes successfully.
 * This means that you cannot rely on `$routeParams` being correct in route resolve functions.
 * Instead you can use `$route.current.params` to access the new route's parameters.
 *
 * @example
 * <pre>
 *  // Given:
 *  // URL: http://server.com/index.html#/Chapter/1/Section/2?search=moby
 *  // Route: /Chapter/:chapterId/Section/:sectionId
 *  //
 *  // Then
 *  $routeParams ==> {chapterId:1, sectionId:2, search:'moby'}
 * </pre>
 */
function $RouteParamsProvider() {
  this.$get = valueFn({});
}

/**
 * DESIGN NOTES
 *
 * The design decisions behind the scope are heavily favored for speed and memory consumption.
 *
 * The typical use of scope is to watch the expressions, which most of the time return the same
 * value as last time so we optimize the operation.
 *
 * Closures construction is expensive in terms of speed as well as memory:
 *   - No closures, instead use prototypical inheritance for API
 *   - Internal state needs to be stored on scope directly, which means that private state is
 *     exposed as $$____ properties
 *
 * Loop operations are optimized by using while(count--) { ... }
 *   - this means that in order to keep the same order of execution as addition we have to add
 *     items to the array at the beginning (shift) instead of at the end (push)
 *
 * Child scopes are created and removed often
 *   - Using an array would be slow since inserts in middle are expensive so we use linked list
 *
 * There are few watches then a lot of observers. This is why you don't want the observer to be
 * implemented in the same way as watch. Watch requires return of initialization function which
 * are expensive to construct.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$rootScopeProvider
 * @description
 *
 * Provider for the $rootScope service.
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.$rootScopeProvider#digestTtl
 * @methodOf ng.$rootScopeProvider
 * @description
 *
 * Sets the number of digest iterations the scope should attempt to execute before giving up and
 * assuming that the model is unstable.
 *
 * The current default is 10 iterations.
 *
 * @param {number} limit The number of digest iterations.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$rootScope
 * @description
 *
 * Every application has a single root {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope scope}.
 * All other scopes are child scopes of the root scope. Scopes provide mechanism for watching the model and provide
 * event processing life-cycle. See {@link guide/scope developer guide on scopes}.
 */
function $RootScopeProvider(){
  var TTL = 10;

  this.digestTtl = function(value) {
    if (arguments.length) {
      TTL = value;
    }
    return TTL;
  };

  this.$get = ['$injector', '$exceptionHandler', '$parse',
      function( $injector,   $exceptionHandler,   $parse) {

    /**
     * @ngdoc function
     * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope
     *
     * @description
     * A root scope can be retrieved using the {@link ng.$rootScope $rootScope} key from the
     * {@link AUTO.$injector $injector}. Child scopes are created using the
     * {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$new $new()} method. (Most scopes are created automatically when
     * compiled HTML template is executed.)
     *
     * Here is a simple scope snippet to show how you can interact with the scope.
     * <pre>
        angular.injector(['ng']).invoke(function($rootScope) {
           var scope = $rootScope.$new();
           scope.salutation = 'Hello';
           scope.name = 'World';

           expect(scope.greeting).toEqual(undefined);

           scope.$watch('name', function() {
             scope.greeting = scope.salutation + ' ' + scope.name + '!';
           }); // initialize the watch

           expect(scope.greeting).toEqual(undefined);
           scope.name = 'Misko';
           // still old value, since watches have not been called yet
           expect(scope.greeting).toEqual(undefined);

           scope.$digest(); // fire all  the watches
           expect(scope.greeting).toEqual('Hello Misko!');
        });
     * </pre>
     *
     * # Inheritance
     * A scope can inherit from a parent scope, as in this example:
     * <pre>
         var parent = $rootScope;
         var child = parent.$new();

         parent.salutation = "Hello";
         child.name = "World";
         expect(child.salutation).toEqual('Hello');

         child.salutation = "Welcome";
         expect(child.salutation).toEqual('Welcome');
         expect(parent.salutation).toEqual('Hello');
     * </pre>
     *
     *
     * @param {Object.<string, function()>=} providers Map of service factory which need to be provided
     *     for the current scope. Defaults to {@link ng}.
     * @param {Object.<string, *>=} instanceCache Provides pre-instantiated services which should
     *     append/override services provided by `providers`. This is handy when unit-testing and having
     *     the need to override a default service.
     * @returns {Object} Newly created scope.
     *
     */
    function Scope() {
      this.$id = nextUid();
      this.$$phase = this.$parent = this.$$watchers =
                     this.$$nextSibling = this.$$prevSibling =
                     this.$$childHead = this.$$childTail = null;
      this['this'] = this.$root =  this;
      this.$$destroyed = false;
      this.$$asyncQueue = [];
      this.$$listeners = {};
      this.$$isolateBindings = {};
    }

    /**
     * @ngdoc property
     * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$id
     * @propertyOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
     * @returns {number} Unique scope ID (monotonically increasing alphanumeric sequence) useful for
     *   debugging.
     */


    Scope.prototype = {
      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$new
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Creates a new child {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope scope}.
       *
       * The parent scope will propagate the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} and
       * {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} events. The scope can be removed from the scope
       * hierarchy using {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$destroy $destroy()}.
       *
       * {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$destroy $destroy()} must be called on a scope when it is desired for
       * the scope and its child scopes to be permanently detached from the parent and thus stop
       * participating in model change detection and listener notification by invoking.
       *
       * @param {boolean} isolate if true then the scope does not prototypically inherit from the
       *         parent scope. The scope is isolated, as it can not see parent scope properties.
       *         When creating widgets it is useful for the widget to not accidentally read parent
       *         state.
       *
       * @returns {Object} The newly created child scope.
       *
       */
      $new: function(isolate) {
        var Child,
            child;

        if (isFunction(isolate)) {
          // TODO: remove at some point
          throw Error('API-CHANGE: Use $controller to instantiate controllers.');
        }
        if (isolate) {
          child = new Scope();
          child.$root = this.$root;
        } else {
          Child = function() {}; // should be anonymous; This is so that when the minifier munges
            // the name it does not become random set of chars. These will then show up as class
            // name in the debugger.
          Child.prototype = this;
          child = new Child();
          child.$id = nextUid();
        }
        child['this'] = child;
        child.$$listeners = {};
        child.$parent = this;
        child.$$asyncQueue = [];
        child.$$watchers = child.$$nextSibling = child.$$childHead = child.$$childTail = null;
        child.$$prevSibling = this.$$childTail;
        if (this.$$childHead) {
          this.$$childTail.$$nextSibling = child;
          this.$$childTail = child;
        } else {
          this.$$childHead = this.$$childTail = child;
        }
        return child;
      },

      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Registers a `listener` callback to be executed whenever the `watchExpression` changes.
       *
       * - The `watchExpression` is called on every call to {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} and
       *   should return the value which will be watched. (Since {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()}
       *   reruns when it detects changes the `watchExpression` can execute multiple times per
       *   {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} and should be idempotent.)
       * - The `listener` is called only when the value from the current `watchExpression` and the
       *   previous call to `watchExpression` are not equal (with the exception of the initial run,
       *   see below). The inequality is determined according to
       *   {@link angular.equals} function. To save the value of the object for later comparison, the
       *   {@link angular.copy} function is used. It also means that watching complex options will
       *   have adverse memory and performance implications.
       * - The watch `listener` may change the model, which may trigger other `listener`s to fire. This
       *   is achieved by rerunning the watchers until no changes are detected. The rerun iteration
       *   limit is 10 to prevent an infinite loop deadlock.
       *
       *
       * If you want to be notified whenever {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest} is called,
       * you can register a `watchExpression` function with no `listener`. (Since `watchExpression`
       * can execute multiple times per {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest} cycle when a change is
       * detected, be prepared for multiple calls to your listener.)
       *
       * After a watcher is registered with the scope, the `listener` fn is called asynchronously
       * (via {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$evalAsync $evalAsync}) to initialize the
       * watcher. In rare cases, this is undesirable because the listener is called when the result
       * of `watchExpression` didn't change. To detect this scenario within the `listener` fn, you
       * can compare the `newVal` and `oldVal`. If these two values are identical (`===`) then the
       * listener was called due to initialization.
       *
       *
       * # Example
       * <pre>
           // let's assume that scope was dependency injected as the $rootScope
           var scope = $rootScope;
           scope.name = 'misko';
           scope.counter = 0;

           expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);
           scope.$watch('name', function(newValue, oldValue) { scope.counter = scope.counter + 1; });
           expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);

           scope.$digest();
           // no variable change
           expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);

           scope.name = 'adam';
           scope.$digest();
           expect(scope.counter).toEqual(1);
       * </pre>
       *
       *
       *
       * @param {(function()|string)} watchExpression Expression that is evaluated on each
       *    {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest} cycle. A change in the return value triggers a
       *    call to the `listener`.
       *
       *    - `string`: Evaluated as {@link guide/expression expression}
       *    - `function(scope)`: called with current `scope` as a parameter.
       * @param {(function()|string)=} listener Callback called whenever the return value of
       *   the `watchExpression` changes.
       *
       *    - `string`: Evaluated as {@link guide/expression expression}
       *    - `function(newValue, oldValue, scope)`: called with current and previous values as parameters.
       *
       * @param {boolean=} objectEquality Compare object for equality rather than for reference.
       * @returns {function()} Returns a deregistration function for this listener.
       */
      $watch: function(watchExp, listener, objectEquality) {
        var scope = this,
            get = compileToFn(watchExp, 'watch'),
            array = scope.$$watchers,
            watcher = {
              fn: listener,
              last: initWatchVal,
              get: get,
              exp: watchExp,
              eq: !!objectEquality
            };

        // in the case user pass string, we need to compile it, do we really need this ?
        if (!isFunction(listener)) {
          var listenFn = compileToFn(listener || noop, 'listener');
          watcher.fn = function(newVal, oldVal, scope) {listenFn(scope);};
        }

        if (!array) {
          array = scope.$$watchers = [];
        }
        // we use unshift since we use a while loop in $digest for speed.
        // the while loop reads in reverse order.
        array.unshift(watcher);

        return function() {
          arrayRemove(array, watcher);
        };
      },

      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Processes all of the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch watchers} of the current scope and its children.
       * Because a {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch watcher}'s listener can change the model, the
       * `$digest()` keeps calling the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch watchers} until no more listeners are
       * firing. This means that it is possible to get into an infinite loop. This function will throw
       * `'Maximum iteration limit exceeded.'` if the number of iterations exceeds 10.
       *
       * Usually you don't call `$digest()` directly in
       * {@link ng.directive:ngController controllers} or in
       * {@link ng.$compileProvider#directive directives}.
       * Instead a call to {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$apply $apply()} (typically from within a
       * {@link ng.$compileProvider#directive directives}) will force a `$digest()`.
       *
       * If you want to be notified whenever `$digest()` is called,
       * you can register a `watchExpression` function  with {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch $watch()}
       * with no `listener`.
       *
       * You may have a need to call `$digest()` from within unit-tests, to simulate the scope
       * life-cycle.
       *
       * # Example
       * <pre>
           var scope = ...;
           scope.name = 'misko';
           scope.counter = 0;

           expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);
           scope.$watch('name', function(newValue, oldValue) {
             scope.counter = scope.counter + 1;
           });
           expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);

           scope.$digest();
           // no variable change
           expect(scope.counter).toEqual(0);

           scope.name = 'adam';
           scope.$digest();
           expect(scope.counter).toEqual(1);
       * </pre>
       *
       */
      $digest: function() {
        var watch, value, last,
            watchers,
            asyncQueue,
            length,
            dirty, ttl = TTL,
            next, current, target = this,
            watchLog = [],
            logIdx, logMsg;

        beginPhase('$digest');

        do {
          dirty = false;
          current = target;
          do {
            asyncQueue = current.$$asyncQueue;
            while(asyncQueue.length) {
              try {
                current.$eval(asyncQueue.shift());
              } catch (e) {
                $exceptionHandler(e);
              }
            }
            if ((watchers = current.$$watchers)) {
              // process our watches
              length = watchers.length;
              while (length--) {
                try {
                  watch = watchers[length];
                  // Most common watches are on primitives, in which case we can short
                  // circuit it with === operator, only when === fails do we use .equals
                  if (watch && (value = watch.get(current)) !== (last = watch.last) &&
                      !(watch.eq
                          ? equals(value, last)
                          : (typeof value == 'number' && typeof last == 'number'
                             && isNaN(value) && isNaN(last)))) {
                    dirty = true;
                    watch.last = watch.eq ? copy(value) : value;
                    watch.fn(value, ((last === initWatchVal) ? value : last), current);
                    if (ttl < 5) {
                      logIdx = 4 - ttl;
                      if (!watchLog[logIdx]) watchLog[logIdx] = [];
                      logMsg = (isFunction(watch.exp))
                          ? 'fn: ' + (watch.exp.name || watch.exp.toString())
                          : watch.exp;
                      logMsg += '; newVal: ' + toJson(value) + '; oldVal: ' + toJson(last);
                      watchLog[logIdx].push(logMsg);
                    }
                  }
                } catch (e) {
                  $exceptionHandler(e);
                }
              }
            }

            // Insanity Warning: scope depth-first traversal
            // yes, this code is a bit crazy, but it works and we have tests to prove it!
            // this piece should be kept in sync with the traversal in $broadcast
            if (!(next = (current.$$childHead || (current !== target && current.$$nextSibling)))) {
              while(current !== target && !(next = current.$$nextSibling)) {
                current = current.$parent;
              }
            }
          } while ((current = next));

          if(dirty && !(ttl--)) {
            clearPhase();
            throw Error(TTL + ' $digest() iterations reached. Aborting!\n' +
                'Watchers fired in the last 5 iterations: ' + toJson(watchLog));
          }
        } while (dirty || asyncQueue.length);

        clearPhase();
      },


      /**
       * @ngdoc event
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$destroy
       * @eventOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @eventType broadcast on scope being destroyed
       *
       * @description
       * Broadcasted when a scope and its children are being destroyed.
       * 
       * Note that, in AngularJS, there is also a `$destroy` jQuery event, which can be used to
       * clean up DOM bindings before an element is removed from the DOM.
       */

      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$destroy
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Removes the current scope (and all of its children) from the parent scope. Removal implies
       * that calls to {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} will no longer
       * propagate to the current scope and its children. Removal also implies that the current
       * scope is eligible for garbage collection.
       *
       * The `$destroy()` is usually used by directives such as
       * {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat ngRepeat} for managing the
       * unrolling of the loop.
       *
       * Just before a scope is destroyed a `$destroy` event is broadcasted on this scope.
       * Application code can register a `$destroy` event handler that will give it chance to
       * perform any necessary cleanup.
       * 
       * Note that, in AngularJS, there is also a `$destroy` jQuery event, which can be used to
       * clean up DOM bindings before an element is removed from the DOM.
       */
      $destroy: function() {
        // we can't destroy the root scope or a scope that has been already destroyed
        if ($rootScope == this || this.$$destroyed) return;
        var parent = this.$parent;

        this.$broadcast('$destroy');
        this.$$destroyed = true;

        if (parent.$$childHead == this) parent.$$childHead = this.$$nextSibling;
        if (parent.$$childTail == this) parent.$$childTail = this.$$prevSibling;
        if (this.$$prevSibling) this.$$prevSibling.$$nextSibling = this.$$nextSibling;
        if (this.$$nextSibling) this.$$nextSibling.$$prevSibling = this.$$prevSibling;

        // This is bogus code that works around Chrome's GC leak
        // see: https://github.com/angular/angular.js/issues/1313#issuecomment-10378451
        this.$parent = this.$$nextSibling = this.$$prevSibling = this.$$childHead =
            this.$$childTail = null;
      },

      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$eval
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Executes the `expression` on the current scope returning the result. Any exceptions in the
       * expression are propagated (uncaught). This is useful when evaluating Angular expressions.
       *
       * # Example
       * <pre>
           var scope = ng.$rootScope.Scope();
           scope.a = 1;
           scope.b = 2;

           expect(scope.$eval('a+b')).toEqual(3);
           expect(scope.$eval(function(scope){ return scope.a + scope.b; })).toEqual(3);
       * </pre>
       *
       * @param {(string|function())=} expression An angular expression to be executed.
       *
       *    - `string`: execute using the rules as defined in  {@link guide/expression expression}.
       *    - `function(scope)`: execute the function with the current `scope` parameter.
       *
       * @returns {*} The result of evaluating the expression.
       */
      $eval: function(expr, locals) {
        return $parse(expr)(this, locals);
      },

      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$evalAsync
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Executes the expression on the current scope at a later point in time.
       *
       * The `$evalAsync` makes no guarantees as to when the `expression` will be executed, only that:
       *
       *   - it will execute in the current script execution context (before any DOM rendering).
       *   - at least one {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest cycle} will be performed after
       *     `expression` execution.
       *
       * Any exceptions from the execution of the expression are forwarded to the
       * {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.
       *
       * @param {(string|function())=} expression An angular expression to be executed.
       *
       *    - `string`: execute using the rules as defined in  {@link guide/expression expression}.
       *    - `function(scope)`: execute the function with the current `scope` parameter.
       *
       */
      $evalAsync: function(expr) {
        this.$$asyncQueue.push(expr);
      },

      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$apply
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * `$apply()` is used to execute an expression in angular from outside of the angular framework.
       * (For example from browser DOM events, setTimeout, XHR or third party libraries).
       * Because we are calling into the angular framework we need to perform proper scope life-cycle
       * of {@link ng.$exceptionHandler exception handling},
       * {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest executing watches}.
       *
       * ## Life cycle
       *
       * # Pseudo-Code of `$apply()`
       * <pre>
           function $apply(expr) {
             try {
               return $eval(expr);
             } catch (e) {
               $exceptionHandler(e);
             } finally {
               $root.$digest();
             }
           }
       * </pre>
       *
       *
       * Scope's `$apply()` method transitions through the following stages:
       *
       * 1. The {@link guide/expression expression} is executed using the
       *    {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$eval $eval()} method.
       * 2. Any exceptions from the execution of the expression are forwarded to the
       *    {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.
       * 3. The {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$watch watch} listeners are fired immediately after the expression
       *    was executed using the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$digest $digest()} method.
       *
       *
       * @param {(string|function())=} exp An angular expression to be executed.
       *
       *    - `string`: execute using the rules as defined in {@link guide/expression expression}.
       *    - `function(scope)`: execute the function with current `scope` parameter.
       *
       * @returns {*} The result of evaluating the expression.
       */
      $apply: function(expr) {
        try {
          beginPhase('$apply');
          return this.$eval(expr);
        } catch (e) {
          $exceptionHandler(e);
        } finally {
          clearPhase();
          try {
            $rootScope.$digest();
          } catch (e) {
            $exceptionHandler(e);
            throw e;
          }
        }
      },

      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Listens on events of a given type. See {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$emit $emit} for discussion of
       * event life cycle.
       *
       * The event listener function format is: `function(event, args...)`. The `event` object
       * passed into the listener has the following attributes:
       *
       *   - `targetScope` - `{Scope}`: the scope on which the event was `$emit`-ed or `$broadcast`-ed.
       *   - `currentScope` - `{Scope}`: the current scope which is handling the event.
       *   - `name` - `{string}`: Name of the event.
       *   - `stopPropagation` - `{function=}`: calling `stopPropagation` function will cancel further event
       *     propagation (available only for events that were `$emit`-ed).
       *   - `preventDefault` - `{function}`: calling `preventDefault` sets `defaultPrevented` flag to true.
       *   - `defaultPrevented` - `{boolean}`: true if `preventDefault` was called.
       *
       * @param {string} name Event name to listen on.
       * @param {function(event, args...)} listener Function to call when the event is emitted.
       * @returns {function()} Returns a deregistration function for this listener.
       */
      $on: function(name, listener) {
        var namedListeners = this.$$listeners[name];
        if (!namedListeners) {
          this.$$listeners[name] = namedListeners = [];
        }
        namedListeners.push(listener);

        return function() {
          namedListeners[indexOf(namedListeners, listener)] = null;
        };
      },


      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$emit
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Dispatches an event `name` upwards through the scope hierarchy notifying the
       * registered {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on} listeners.
       *
       * The event life cycle starts at the scope on which `$emit` was called. All
       * {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on listeners} listening for `name` event on this scope get notified.
       * Afterwards, the event traverses upwards toward the root scope and calls all registered
       * listeners along the way. The event will stop propagating if one of the listeners cancels it.
       *
       * Any exception emitted from the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on listeners} will be passed
       * onto the {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.
       *
       * @param {string} name Event name to emit.
       * @param {...*} args Optional set of arguments which will be passed onto the event listeners.
       * @return {Object} Event object, see {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on}
       */
      $emit: function(name, args) {
        var empty = [],
            namedListeners,
            scope = this,
            stopPropagation = false,
            event = {
              name: name,
              targetScope: scope,
              stopPropagation: function() {stopPropagation = true;},
              preventDefault: function() {
                event.defaultPrevented = true;
              },
              defaultPrevented: false
            },
            listenerArgs = concat([event], arguments, 1),
            i, length;

        do {
          namedListeners = scope.$$listeners[name] || empty;
          event.currentScope = scope;
          for (i=0, length=namedListeners.length; i<length; i++) {

            // if listeners were deregistered, defragment the array
            if (!namedListeners[i]) {
              namedListeners.splice(i, 1);
              i--;
              length--;
              continue;
            }
            try {
              namedListeners[i].apply(null, listenerArgs);
              if (stopPropagation) return event;
            } catch (e) {
              $exceptionHandler(e);
            }
          }
          //traverse upwards
          scope = scope.$parent;
        } while (scope);

        return event;
      },


      /**
       * @ngdoc function
       * @name ng.$rootScope.Scope#$broadcast
       * @methodOf ng.$rootScope.Scope
       * @function
       *
       * @description
       * Dispatches an event `name` downwards to all child scopes (and their children) notifying the
       * registered {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on} listeners.
       *
       * The event life cycle starts at the scope on which `$broadcast` was called. All
       * {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on listeners} listening for `name` event on this scope get notified.
       * Afterwards, the event propagates to all direct and indirect scopes of the current scope and
       * calls all registered listeners along the way. The event cannot be canceled.
       *
       * Any exception emmited from the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on listeners} will be passed
       * onto the {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.
       *
       * @param {string} name Event name to broadcast.
       * @param {...*} args Optional set of arguments which will be passed onto the event listeners.
       * @return {Object} Event object, see {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$on}
       */
      $broadcast: function(name, args) {
        var target = this,
            current = target,
            next = target,
            event = {
              name: name,
              targetScope: target,
              preventDefault: function() {
                event.defaultPrevented = true;
              },
              defaultPrevented: false
            },
            listenerArgs = concat([event], arguments, 1),
            listeners, i, length;

        //down while you can, then up and next sibling or up and next sibling until back at root
        do {
          current = next;
          event.currentScope = current;
          listeners = current.$$listeners[name] || [];
          for (i=0, length = listeners.length; i<length; i++) {
            // if listeners were deregistered, defragment the array
            if (!listeners[i]) {
              listeners.splice(i, 1);
              i--;
              length--;
              continue;
            }

            try {
              listeners[i].apply(null, listenerArgs);
            } catch(e) {
              $exceptionHandler(e);
            }
          }

          // Insanity Warning: scope depth-first traversal
          // yes, this code is a bit crazy, but it works and we have tests to prove it!
          // this piece should be kept in sync with the traversal in $digest
          if (!(next = (current.$$childHead || (current !== target && current.$$nextSibling)))) {
            while(current !== target && !(next = current.$$nextSibling)) {
              current = current.$parent;
            }
          }
        } while ((current = next));

        return event;
      }
    };

    var $rootScope = new Scope();

    return $rootScope;


    function beginPhase(phase) {
      if ($rootScope.$$phase) {
        throw Error($rootScope.$$phase + ' already in progress');
      }

      $rootScope.$$phase = phase;
    }

    function clearPhase() {
      $rootScope.$$phase = null;
    }

    function compileToFn(exp, name) {
      var fn = $parse(exp);
      assertArgFn(fn, name);
      return fn;
    }

    /**
     * function used as an initial value for watchers.
     * because it's unique we can easily tell it apart from other values
     */
    function initWatchVal() {}
  }];
}

/**
 * !!! This is an undocumented "private" service !!!
 *
 * @name ng.$sniffer
 * @requires $window
 *
 * @property {boolean} history Does the browser support html5 history api ?
 * @property {boolean} hashchange Does the browser support hashchange event ?
 *
 * @description
 * This is very simple implementation of testing browser's features.
 */
function $SnifferProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$window', function($window) {
    var eventSupport = {},
        android = int((/android (\d+)/.exec(lowercase($window.navigator.userAgent)) || [])[1]);

    return {
      // Android has history.pushState, but it does not update location correctly
      // so let's not use the history API at all.
      // http://code.google.com/p/android/issues/detail?id=17471
      // https://github.com/angular/angular.js/issues/904
      history: !!($window.history && $window.history.pushState && !(android < 4)),
      hashchange: 'onhashchange' in $window &&
                  // IE8 compatible mode lies
                  (!$window.document.documentMode || $window.document.documentMode > 7),
      hasEvent: function(event) {
        // IE9 implements 'input' event it's so fubared that we rather pretend that it doesn't have
        // it. In particular the event is not fired when backspace or delete key are pressed or
        // when cut operation is performed.
        if (event == 'input' && msie == 9) return false;

        if (isUndefined(eventSupport[event])) {
          var divElm = $window.document.createElement('div');
          eventSupport[event] = 'on' + event in divElm;
        }

        return eventSupport[event];
      },
      // TODO(i): currently there is no way to feature detect CSP without triggering alerts
      csp: false
    };
  }];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$window
 *
 * @description
 * A reference to the browser's `window` object. While `window`
 * is globally available in JavaScript, it causes testability problems, because
 * it is a global variable. In angular we always refer to it through the
 * `$window` service, so it may be overriden, removed or mocked for testing.
 *
 * Expressions, like the one defined for the `ngClick` directive in the example
 * below, are evaluated with respect to the current scope.  Therefore, there is
 * no risk of inadvertently coding in a dependency on a global value in such an
 * expression.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope, $window) {
           $scope.$window = $window;
           $scope.greeting = 'Hello, World!';
         }
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
         <input type="text" ng-model="greeting" />
         <button ng-click="$window.alert(greeting)">ALERT</button>
       </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
      it('should display the greeting in the input box', function() {
       input('greeting').enter('Hello, E2E Tests');
       // If we click the button it will block the test runner
       // element(':button').click();
      });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
function $WindowProvider(){
  this.$get = valueFn(window);
}

/**
 * Parse headers into key value object
 *
 * @param {string} headers Raw headers as a string
 * @returns {Object} Parsed headers as key value object
 */
function parseHeaders(headers) {
  var parsed = {}, key, val, i;

  if (!headers) return parsed;

  forEach(headers.split('\n'), function(line) {
    i = line.indexOf(':');
    key = lowercase(trim(line.substr(0, i)));
    val = trim(line.substr(i + 1));

    if (key) {
      if (parsed[key]) {
        parsed[key] += ', ' + val;
      } else {
        parsed[key] = val;
      }
    }
  });

  return parsed;
}


/**
 * Returns a function that provides access to parsed headers.
 *
 * Headers are lazy parsed when first requested.
 * @see parseHeaders
 *
 * @param {(string|Object)} headers Headers to provide access to.
 * @returns {function(string=)} Returns a getter function which if called with:
 *
 *   - if called with single an argument returns a single header value or null
 *   - if called with no arguments returns an object containing all headers.
 */
function headersGetter(headers) {
  var headersObj = isObject(headers) ? headers : undefined;

  return function(name) {
    if (!headersObj) headersObj =  parseHeaders(headers);

    if (name) {
      return headersObj[lowercase(name)] || null;
    }

    return headersObj;
  };
}


/**
 * Chain all given functions
 *
 * This function is used for both request and response transforming
 *
 * @param {*} data Data to transform.
 * @param {function(string=)} headers Http headers getter fn.
 * @param {(function|Array.<function>)} fns Function or an array of functions.
 * @returns {*} Transformed data.
 */
function transformData(data, headers, fns) {
  if (isFunction(fns))
    return fns(data, headers);

  forEach(fns, function(fn) {
    data = fn(data, headers);
  });

  return data;
}


function isSuccess(status) {
  return 200 <= status && status < 300;
}


function $HttpProvider() {
  var JSON_START = /^\s*(\[|\{[^\{])/,
      JSON_END = /[\}\]]\s*$/,
      PROTECTION_PREFIX = /^\)\]\}',?\n/;

  var $config = this.defaults = {
    // transform incoming response data
    transformResponse: [function(data) {
      if (isString(data)) {
        // strip json vulnerability protection prefix
        data = data.replace(PROTECTION_PREFIX, '');
        if (JSON_START.test(data) && JSON_END.test(data))
          data = fromJson(data, true);
      }
      return data;
    }],

    // transform outgoing request data
    transformRequest: [function(d) {
      return isObject(d) && !isFile(d) ? toJson(d) : d;
    }],

    // default headers
    headers: {
      common: {
        'Accept': 'application/json, text/plain, */*',
        'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'
      },
      post: {'Content-Type': 'application/json;charset=utf-8'},
      put:  {'Content-Type': 'application/json;charset=utf-8'}
    }
  };

  var providerResponseInterceptors = this.responseInterceptors = [];

  this.$get = ['$httpBackend', '$browser', '$cacheFactory', '$rootScope', '$q', '$injector',
      function($httpBackend, $browser, $cacheFactory, $rootScope, $q, $injector) {

    var defaultCache = $cacheFactory('$http'),
        responseInterceptors = [];

    forEach(providerResponseInterceptors, function(interceptor) {
      responseInterceptors.push(
          isString(interceptor)
              ? $injector.get(interceptor)
              : $injector.invoke(interceptor)
      );
    });


    /**
     * @ngdoc function
     * @name ng.$http
     * @requires $httpBackend
     * @requires $browser
     * @requires $cacheFactory
     * @requires $rootScope
     * @requires $q
     * @requires $injector
     *
     * @description
     * The `$http` service is a core Angular service that facilitates communication with the remote
     * HTTP servers via the browser's {@link https://developer.mozilla.org/en/xmlhttprequest
     * XMLHttpRequest} object or via {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSONP JSONP}.
     *
     * For unit testing applications that use `$http` service, see
     * {@link ngMock.$httpBackend $httpBackend mock}.
     *
     * For a higher level of abstraction, please check out the {@link ngResource.$resource
     * $resource} service.
     *
     * The $http API is based on the {@link ng.$q deferred/promise APIs} exposed by
     * the $q service. While for simple usage patterns this doesn't matter much, for advanced usage
     * it is important to familiarize yourself with these APIs and the guarantees they provide.
     *
     *
     * # General usage
     * The `$http` service is a function which takes a single argument — a configuration object —
     * that is used to generate an HTTP request and returns  a {@link ng.$q promise}
     * with two $http specific methods: `success` and `error`.
     *
     * <pre>
     *   $http({method: 'GET', url: '/someUrl'}).
     *     success(function(data, status, headers, config) {
     *       // this callback will be called asynchronously
     *       // when the response is available
     *     }).
     *     error(function(data, status, headers, config) {
     *       // called asynchronously if an error occurs
     *       // or server returns response with an error status.
     *     });
     * </pre>
     *
     * Since the returned value of calling the $http function is a `promise`, you can also use
     * the `then` method to register callbacks, and these callbacks will receive a single argument –
     * an object representing the response. See the API signature and type info below for more
     * details.
     *
     * A response status code between 200 and 299 is considered a success status and
     * will result in the success callback being called. Note that if the response is a redirect,
     * XMLHttpRequest will transparently follow it, meaning that the error callback will not be
     * called for such responses.
     *
     * # Shortcut methods
     *
     * Since all invocations of the $http service require passing in an HTTP method and URL, and
     * POST/PUT requests require request data to be provided as well, shortcut methods
     * were created:
     *
     * <pre>
     *   $http.get('/someUrl').success(successCallback);
     *   $http.post('/someUrl', data).success(successCallback);
     * </pre>
     *
     * Complete list of shortcut methods:
     *
     * - {@link ng.$http#get $http.get}
     * - {@link ng.$http#head $http.head}
     * - {@link ng.$http#post $http.post}
     * - {@link ng.$http#put $http.put}
     * - {@link ng.$http#delete $http.delete}
     * - {@link ng.$http#jsonp $http.jsonp}
     *
     *
     * # Setting HTTP Headers
     *
     * The $http service will automatically add certain HTTP headers to all requests. These defaults
     * can be fully configured by accessing the `$httpProvider.defaults.headers` configuration
     * object, which currently contains this default configuration:
     *
     * - `$httpProvider.defaults.headers.common` (headers that are common for all requests):
     *   - `Accept: application/json, text/plain, * / *`
     *   - `X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest`
     * - `$httpProvider.defaults.headers.post`: (header defaults for POST requests)
     *   - `Content-Type: application/json`
     * - `$httpProvider.defaults.headers.put` (header defaults for PUT requests)
     *   - `Content-Type: application/json`
     *
     * To add or overwrite these defaults, simply add or remove a property from these configuration
     * objects. To add headers for an HTTP method other than POST or PUT, simply add a new object
     * with the lowercased HTTP method name as the key, e.g.
     * `$httpProvider.defaults.headers.get['My-Header']='value'`.
     *
     * Additionally, the defaults can be set at runtime via the `$http.defaults` object in the same
     * fashion.
     *
     *
     * # Transforming Requests and Responses
     *
     * Both requests and responses can be transformed using transform functions. By default, Angular
     * applies these transformations:
     *
     * Request transformations:
     *
     * - If the `data` property of the request configuration object contains an object, serialize it into
     *   JSON format.
     *
     * Response transformations:
     *
     *  - If XSRF prefix is detected, strip it (see Security Considerations section below).
     *  - If JSON response is detected, deserialize it using a JSON parser.
     *
     * To globally augment or override the default transforms, modify the `$httpProvider.defaults.transformRequest` and
     * `$httpProvider.defaults.transformResponse` properties. These properties are by default an
     * array of transform functions, which allows you to `push` or `unshift` a new transformation function into the
     * transformation chain. You can also decide to completely override any default transformations by assigning your
     * transformation functions to these properties directly without the array wrapper.
     *
     * Similarly, to locally override the request/response transforms, augment the `transformRequest` and/or
     * `transformResponse` properties of the configuration object passed into `$http`.
     *
     *
     * # Caching
     *
     * To enable caching, set the configuration property `cache` to `true`. When the cache is
     * enabled, `$http` stores the response from the server in local cache. Next time the
     * response is served from the cache without sending a request to the server.
     *
     * Note that even if the response is served from cache, delivery of the data is asynchronous in
     * the same way that real requests are.
     *
     * If there are multiple GET requests for the same URL that should be cached using the same
     * cache, but the cache is not populated yet, only one request to the server will be made and
     * the remaining requests will be fulfilled using the response from the first request.
     *
     *
     * # Response interceptors
     *
     * Before you start creating interceptors, be sure to understand the
     * {@link ng.$q $q and deferred/promise APIs}.
     *
     * For purposes of global error handling, authentication or any kind of synchronous or
     * asynchronous preprocessing of received responses, it is desirable to be able to intercept
     * responses for http requests before they are handed over to the application code that
     * initiated these requests. The response interceptors leverage the {@link ng.$q
     * promise apis} to fulfil this need for both synchronous and asynchronous preprocessing.
     *
     * The interceptors are service factories that are registered with the $httpProvider by
     * adding them to the `$httpProvider.responseInterceptors` array. The factory is called and
     * injected with dependencies (if specified) and returns the interceptor  — a function that
     * takes a {@link ng.$q promise} and returns the original or a new promise.
     *
     * <pre>
     *   // register the interceptor as a service
     *   $provide.factory('myHttpInterceptor', function($q, dependency1, dependency2) {
     *     return function(promise) {
     *       return promise.then(function(response) {
     *         // do something on success
     *         return response;
     *       }, function(response) {
     *         // do something on error
     *         if (canRecover(response)) {
     *           return responseOrNewPromise
     *         }
     *         return $q.reject(response);
     *       });
     *     }
     *   });
     *
     *   $httpProvider.responseInterceptors.push('myHttpInterceptor');
     *
     *
     *   // register the interceptor via an anonymous factory
     *   $httpProvider.responseInterceptors.push(function($q, dependency1, dependency2) {
     *     return function(promise) {
     *       // same as above
     *     }
     *   });
     * </pre>
     *
     *
     * # Security Considerations
     *
     * When designing web applications, consider security threats from:
     *
     * - {@link http://haacked.com/archive/2008/11/20/anatomy-of-a-subtle-json-vulnerability.aspx
     *   JSON vulnerability}
     * - {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_request_forgery XSRF}
     *
     * Both server and the client must cooperate in order to eliminate these threats. Angular comes
     * pre-configured with strategies that address these issues, but for this to work backend server
     * cooperation is required.
     *
     * ## JSON Vulnerability Protection
     *
     * A {@link http://haacked.com/archive/2008/11/20/anatomy-of-a-subtle-json-vulnerability.aspx
     * JSON vulnerability} allows third party website to turn your JSON resource URL into
     * {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSONP JSONP} request under some conditions. To
     * counter this your server can prefix all JSON requests with following string `")]}',\n"`.
     * Angular will automatically strip the prefix before processing it as JSON.
     *
     * For example if your server needs to return:
     * <pre>
     * ['one','two']
     * </pre>
     *
     * which is vulnerable to attack, your server can return:
     * <pre>
     * )]}',
     * ['one','two']
     * </pre>
     *
     * Angular will strip the prefix, before processing the JSON.
     *
     *
     * ## Cross Site Request Forgery (XSRF) Protection
     *
     * {@link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_request_forgery XSRF} is a technique by which
     * an unauthorized site can gain your user's private data. Angular provides a mechanism
     * to counter XSRF. When performing XHR requests, the $http service reads a token from a cookie
     * called `XSRF-TOKEN` and sets it as the HTTP header `X-XSRF-TOKEN`. Since only JavaScript that
     * runs on your domain could read the cookie, your server can be assured that the XHR came from
     * JavaScript running on your domain.
     *
     * To take advantage of this, your server needs to set a token in a JavaScript readable session
     * cookie called `XSRF-TOKEN` on the first HTTP GET request. On subsequent XHR requests the
     * server can verify that the cookie matches `X-XSRF-TOKEN` HTTP header, and therefore be sure
     * that only JavaScript running on your domain could have sent the request. The token must be
     * unique for each user and must be verifiable by the server (to prevent the JavaScript from making
     * up its own tokens). We recommend that the token is a digest of your site's authentication
     * cookie with a {@link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_(cryptography) salt} for added security.
     *
     *
     * @param {object} config Object describing the request to be made and how it should be
     *    processed. The object has following properties:
     *
     *    - **method** – `{string}` – HTTP method (e.g. 'GET', 'POST', etc)
     *    - **url** – `{string}` – Absolute or relative URL of the resource that is being requested.
     *    - **params** – `{Object.<string|Object>}` – Map of strings or objects which will be turned to
     *      `?key1=value1&key2=value2` after the url. If the value is not a string, it will be JSONified.
     *    - **data** – `{string|Object}` – Data to be sent as the request message data.
     *    - **headers** – `{Object}` – Map of strings representing HTTP headers to send to the server.
     *    - **transformRequest** – `{function(data, headersGetter)|Array.<function(data, headersGetter)>}` –
     *      transform function or an array of such functions. The transform function takes the http
     *      request body and headers and returns its transformed (typically serialized) version.
     *    - **transformResponse** – `{function(data, headersGetter)|Array.<function(data, headersGetter)>}` –
     *      transform function or an array of such functions. The transform function takes the http
     *      response body and headers and returns its transformed (typically deserialized) version.
     *    - **cache** – `{boolean|Cache}` – If true, a default $http cache will be used to cache the
     *      GET request, otherwise if a cache instance built with
     *      {@link ng.$cacheFactory $cacheFactory}, this cache will be used for
     *      caching.
     *    - **timeout** – `{number}` – timeout in milliseconds.
     *    - **withCredentials** - `{boolean}` - whether to to set the `withCredentials` flag on the
     *      XHR object. See {@link https://developer.mozilla.org/en/http_access_control#section_5
     *      requests with credentials} for more information.
     *
     * @returns {HttpPromise} Returns a {@link ng.$q promise} object with the
     *   standard `then` method and two http specific methods: `success` and `error`. The `then`
     *   method takes two arguments a success and an error callback which will be called with a
     *   response object. The `success` and `error` methods take a single argument - a function that
     *   will be called when the request succeeds or fails respectively. The arguments passed into
     *   these functions are destructured representation of the response object passed into the
     *   `then` method. The response object has these properties:
     *
     *   - **data** – `{string|Object}` – The response body transformed with the transform functions.
     *   - **status** – `{number}` – HTTP status code of the response.
     *   - **headers** – `{function([headerName])}` – Header getter function.
     *   - **config** – `{Object}` – The configuration object that was used to generate the request.
     *
     * @property {Array.<Object>} pendingRequests Array of config objects for currently pending
     *   requests. This is primarily meant to be used for debugging purposes.
     *
     *
     * @example
      <example>
        <file name="index.html">
          <div ng-controller="FetchCtrl">
            <select ng-model="method">
              <option>GET</option>
              <option>JSONP</option>
            </select>
            <input type="text" ng-model="url" size="80"/>
            <button ng-click="fetch()">fetch</button><br>
            <button ng-click="updateModel('GET', 'http-hello.html')">Sample GET</button>
            <button ng-click="updateModel('JSONP', 'http://angularjs.org/greet.php?callback=JSON_CALLBACK&name=Super%20Hero')">Sample JSONP</button>
            <button ng-click="updateModel('JSONP', 'http://angularjs.org/doesntexist&callback=JSON_CALLBACK')">Invalid JSONP</button>
            <pre>http status code: {{status}}</pre>
            <pre>http response data: {{data}}</pre>
          </div>
        </file>
        <file name="script.js">
          function FetchCtrl($scope, $http, $templateCache) {
            $scope.method = 'GET';
            $scope.url = 'http-hello.html';

            $scope.fetch = function() {
              $scope.code = null;
              $scope.response = null;

              $http({method: $scope.method, url: $scope.url, cache: $templateCache}).
                success(function(data, status) {
                  $scope.status = status;
                  $scope.data = data;
                }).
                error(function(data, status) {
                  $scope.data = data || "Request failed";
                  $scope.status = status;
              });
            };

            $scope.updateModel = function(method, url) {
              $scope.method = method;
              $scope.url = url;
            };
          }
        </file>
        <file name="http-hello.html">
          Hello, $http!
        </file>
        <file name="scenario.js">
          it('should make an xhr GET request', function() {
            element(':button:contains("Sample GET")').click();
            element(':button:contains("fetch")').click();
            expect(binding('status')).toBe('200');
            expect(binding('data')).toMatch(/Hello, \$http!/);
          });

          it('should make a JSONP request to angularjs.org', function() {
            element(':button:contains("Sample JSONP")').click();
            element(':button:contains("fetch")').click();
            expect(binding('status')).toBe('200');
            expect(binding('data')).toMatch(/Super Hero!/);
          });

          it('should make JSONP request to invalid URL and invoke the error handler',
              function() {
            element(':button:contains("Invalid JSONP")').click();
            element(':button:contains("fetch")').click();
            expect(binding('status')).toBe('0');
            expect(binding('data')).toBe('Request failed');
          });
        </file>
      </example>
     */
    function $http(config) {
      config.method = uppercase(config.method);

      var reqTransformFn = config.transformRequest || $config.transformRequest,
          respTransformFn = config.transformResponse || $config.transformResponse,
          reqHeaders = extend({}, config.headers),
          defHeaders = extend(
            {'X-XSRF-TOKEN': $browser.cookies()['XSRF-TOKEN']},
            $config.headers.common,
            $config.headers[lowercase(config.method)]
          ),
          reqData,
          defHeaderName, lowercaseDefHeaderName, headerName,
          promise;

      // using for-in instead of forEach to avoid unecessary iteration after header has been found
      defaultHeadersIteration:
      for(defHeaderName in defHeaders) {
        lowercaseDefHeaderName = lowercase(defHeaderName);
        for(headerName in config.headers) {
          if (lowercase(headerName) === lowercaseDefHeaderName) {
            continue defaultHeadersIteration;
          }
        }
        reqHeaders[defHeaderName] = defHeaders[defHeaderName];
      }

      // strip content-type if data is undefined
      if (isUndefined(config.data)) {
        for(var header in reqHeaders) {
          if (lowercase(header) === 'content-type') {
            delete reqHeaders[header];
            break;
          }
        }
      }

      reqData = transformData(config.data, headersGetter(reqHeaders), reqTransformFn);

      // send request
      promise = sendReq(config, reqData, reqHeaders);


      // transform future response
      promise = promise.then(transformResponse, transformResponse);

      // apply interceptors
      forEach(responseInterceptors, function(interceptor) {
        promise = interceptor(promise);
      });

      promise.success = function(fn) {
        promise.then(function(response) {
          fn(response.data, response.status, response.headers, config);
        });
        return promise;
      };

      promise.error = function(fn) {
        promise.then(null, function(response) {
          fn(response.data, response.status, response.headers, config);
        });
        return promise;
      };

      return promise;

      function transformResponse(response) {
        // make a copy since the response must be cacheable
        var resp = extend({}, response, {
          data: transformData(response.data, response.headers, respTransformFn)
        });
        return (isSuccess(response.status))
          ? resp
          : $q.reject(resp);
      }
    }

    $http.pendingRequests = [];

    /**
     * @ngdoc method
     * @name ng.$http#get
     * @methodOf ng.$http
     *
     * @description
     * Shortcut method to perform `GET` request.
     *
     * @param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request
     * @param {Object=} config Optional configuration object
     * @returns {HttpPromise} Future object
     */

    /**
     * @ngdoc method
     * @name ng.$http#delete
     * @methodOf ng.$http
     *
     * @description
     * Shortcut method to perform `DELETE` request.
     *
     * @param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request
     * @param {Object=} config Optional configuration object
     * @returns {HttpPromise} Future object
     */

    /**
     * @ngdoc method
     * @name ng.$http#head
     * @methodOf ng.$http
     *
     * @description
     * Shortcut method to perform `HEAD` request.
     *
     * @param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request
     * @param {Object=} config Optional configuration object
     * @returns {HttpPromise} Future object
     */

    /**
     * @ngdoc method
     * @name ng.$http#jsonp
     * @methodOf ng.$http
     *
     * @description
     * Shortcut method to perform `JSONP` request.
     *
     * @param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request.
     *                     Should contain `JSON_CALLBACK` string.
     * @param {Object=} config Optional configuration object
     * @returns {HttpPromise} Future object
     */
    createShortMethods('get', 'delete', 'head', 'jsonp');

    /**
     * @ngdoc method
     * @name ng.$http#post
     * @methodOf ng.$http
     *
     * @description
     * Shortcut method to perform `POST` request.
     *
     * @param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request
     * @param {*} data Request content
     * @param {Object=} config Optional configuration object
     * @returns {HttpPromise} Future object
     */

    /**
     * @ngdoc method
     * @name ng.$http#put
     * @methodOf ng.$http
     *
     * @description
     * Shortcut method to perform `PUT` request.
     *
     * @param {string} url Relative or absolute URL specifying the destination of the request
     * @param {*} data Request content
     * @param {Object=} config Optional configuration object
     * @returns {HttpPromise} Future object
     */
    createShortMethodsWithData('post', 'put');

        /**
         * @ngdoc property
         * @name ng.$http#defaults
         * @propertyOf ng.$http
         *
         * @description
         * Runtime equivalent of the `$httpProvider.defaults` property. Allows configuration of
         * default headers as well as request and response transformations.
         *
         * See "Setting HTTP Headers" and "Transforming Requests and Responses" sections above.
         */
    $http.defaults = $config;


    return $http;


    function createShortMethods(names) {
      forEach(arguments, function(name) {
        $http[name] = function(url, config) {
          return $http(extend(config || {}, {
            method: name,
            url: url
          }));
        };
      });
    }


    function createShortMethodsWithData(name) {
      forEach(arguments, function(name) {
        $http[name] = function(url, data, config) {
          return $http(extend(config || {}, {
            method: name,
            url: url,
            data: data
          }));
        };
      });
    }


    /**
     * Makes the request.
     *
     * !!! ACCESSES CLOSURE VARS:
     * $httpBackend, $config, $log, $rootScope, defaultCache, $http.pendingRequests
     */
    function sendReq(config, reqData, reqHeaders) {
      var deferred = $q.defer(),
          promise = deferred.promise,
          cache,
          cachedResp,
          url = buildUrl(config.url, config.params);

      $http.pendingRequests.push(config);
      promise.then(removePendingReq, removePendingReq);


      if (config.cache && config.method == 'GET') {
        cache = isObject(config.cache) ? config.cache : defaultCache;
      }

      if (cache) {
        cachedResp = cache.get(url);
        if (cachedResp) {
          if (cachedResp.then) {
            // cached request has already been sent, but there is no response yet
            cachedResp.then(removePendingReq, removePendingReq);
            return cachedResp;
          } else {
            // serving from cache
            if (isArray(cachedResp)) {
              resolvePromise(cachedResp[1], cachedResp[0], copy(cachedResp[2]));
            } else {
              resolvePromise(cachedResp, 200, {});
            }
          }
        } else {
          // put the promise for the non-transformed response into cache as a placeholder
          cache.put(url, promise);
        }
      }

      // if we won't have the response in cache, send the request to the backend
      if (!cachedResp) {
        $httpBackend(config.method, url, reqData, done, reqHeaders, config.timeout,
            config.withCredentials);
      }

      return promise;


      /**
       * Callback registered to $httpBackend():
       *  - caches the response if desired
       *  - resolves the raw $http promise
       *  - calls $apply
       */
      function done(status, response, headersString) {
        if (cache) {
          if (isSuccess(status)) {
            cache.put(url, [status, response, parseHeaders(headersString)]);
          } else {
            // remove promise from the cache
            cache.remove(url);
          }
        }

        resolvePromise(response, status, headersString);
        $rootScope.$apply();
      }


      /**
       * Resolves the raw $http promise.
       */
      function resolvePromise(response, status, headers) {
        // normalize internal statuses to 0
        status = Math.max(status, 0);

        (isSuccess(status) ? deferred.resolve : deferred.reject)({
          data: response,
          status: status,
          headers: headersGetter(headers),
          config: config
        });
      }


      function removePendingReq() {
        var idx = indexOf($http.pendingRequests, config);
        if (idx !== -1) $http.pendingRequests.splice(idx, 1);
      }
    }


    function buildUrl(url, params) {
          if (!params) return url;
          var parts = [];
          forEachSorted(params, function(value, key) {
            if (value == null || value == undefined) return;
            if (isObject(value)) {
              value = toJson(value);
            }
            parts.push(encodeURIComponent(key) + '=' + encodeURIComponent(value));
          });
          return url + ((url.indexOf('?') == -1) ? '?' : '&') + parts.join('&');
        }


  }];
}

var XHR = window.XMLHttpRequest || function() {
  try { return new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP.6.0"); } catch (e1) {}
  try { return new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP.3.0"); } catch (e2) {}
  try { return new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP"); } catch (e3) {}
  throw new Error("This browser does not support XMLHttpRequest.");
};


/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$httpBackend
 * @requires $browser
 * @requires $window
 * @requires $document
 *
 * @description
 * HTTP backend used by the {@link ng.$http service} that delegates to
 * XMLHttpRequest object or JSONP and deals with browser incompatibilities.
 *
 * You should never need to use this service directly, instead use the higher-level abstractions:
 * {@link ng.$http $http} or {@link ngResource.$resource $resource}.
 *
 * During testing this implementation is swapped with {@link ngMock.$httpBackend mock
 * $httpBackend} which can be trained with responses.
 */
function $HttpBackendProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$browser', '$window', '$document', function($browser, $window, $document) {
    return createHttpBackend($browser, XHR, $browser.defer, $window.angular.callbacks,
        $document[0], $window.location.protocol.replace(':', ''));
  }];
}

function createHttpBackend($browser, XHR, $browserDefer, callbacks, rawDocument, locationProtocol) {
  // TODO(vojta): fix the signature
  return function(method, url, post, callback, headers, timeout, withCredentials) {
    $browser.$$incOutstandingRequestCount();
    url = url || $browser.url();

    if (lowercase(method) == 'jsonp') {
      var callbackId = '_' + (callbacks.counter++).toString(36);
      callbacks[callbackId] = function(data) {
        callbacks[callbackId].data = data;
      };

      jsonpReq(url.replace('JSON_CALLBACK', 'angular.callbacks.' + callbackId),
          function() {
        if (callbacks[callbackId].data) {
          completeRequest(callback, 200, callbacks[callbackId].data);
        } else {
          completeRequest(callback, -2);
        }
        delete callbacks[callbackId];
      });
    } else {
      var xhr = new XHR();
      xhr.open(method, url, true);
      forEach(headers, function(value, key) {
        if (value) xhr.setRequestHeader(key, value);
      });

      var status;

      // In IE6 and 7, this might be called synchronously when xhr.send below is called and the
      // response is in the cache. the promise api will ensure that to the app code the api is
      // always async
      xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (xhr.readyState == 4) {
          var responseHeaders = xhr.getAllResponseHeaders();

          // TODO(vojta): remove once Firefox 21 gets released.
          // begin: workaround to overcome Firefox CORS http response headers bug
          // https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=608735
          // Firefox already patched in nightly. Should land in Firefox 21.

          // CORS "simple response headers" http://www.w3.org/TR/cors/
          var value,
              simpleHeaders = ["Cache-Control", "Content-Language", "Content-Type",
                                  "Expires", "Last-Modified", "Pragma"];
          if (!responseHeaders) {
            responseHeaders = "";
            forEach(simpleHeaders, function (header) {
              var value = xhr.getResponseHeader(header);
              if (value) {
                  responseHeaders += header + ": " + value + "\n";
              }
            });
          }
          // end of the workaround.

          completeRequest(callback, status || xhr.status, xhr.responseText,
                          responseHeaders);
        }
      };

      if (withCredentials) {
        xhr.withCredentials = true;
      }

      xhr.send(post || '');

      if (timeout > 0) {
        $browserDefer(function() {
          status = -1;
          xhr.abort();
        }, timeout);
      }
    }


    function completeRequest(callback, status, response, headersString) {
      // URL_MATCH is defined in src/service/location.js
      var protocol = (url.match(URL_MATCH) || ['', locationProtocol])[1];

      // fix status code for file protocol (it's always 0)
      status = (protocol == 'file') ? (response ? 200 : 404) : status;

      // normalize IE bug (http://bugs.jquery.com/ticket/1450)
      status = status == 1223 ? 204 : status;

      callback(status, response, headersString);
      $browser.$$completeOutstandingRequest(noop);
    }
  };

  function jsonpReq(url, done) {
    // we can't use jQuery/jqLite here because jQuery does crazy shit with script elements, e.g.:
    // - fetches local scripts via XHR and evals them
    // - adds and immediately removes script elements from the document
    var script = rawDocument.createElement('script'),
        doneWrapper = function() {
          rawDocument.body.removeChild(script);
          if (done) done();
        };

    script.type = 'text/javascript';
    script.src = url;

    if (msie) {
      script.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (/loaded|complete/.test(script.readyState)) doneWrapper();
      };
    } else {
      script.onload = script.onerror = doneWrapper;
    }

    rawDocument.body.appendChild(script);
  }
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$locale
 *
 * @description
 * $locale service provides localization rules for various Angular components. As of right now the
 * only public api is:
 *
 * * `id` – `{string}` – locale id formatted as `languageId-countryId` (e.g. `en-us`)
 */
function $LocaleProvider(){
  this.$get = function() {
    return {
      id: 'en-us',

      NUMBER_FORMATS: {
        DECIMAL_SEP: '.',
        GROUP_SEP: ',',
        PATTERNS: [
          { // Decimal Pattern
            minInt: 1,
            minFrac: 0,
            maxFrac: 3,
            posPre: '',
            posSuf: '',
            negPre: '-',
            negSuf: '',
            gSize: 3,
            lgSize: 3
          },{ //Currency Pattern
            minInt: 1,
            minFrac: 2,
            maxFrac: 2,
            posPre: '\u00A4',
            posSuf: '',
            negPre: '(\u00A4',
            negSuf: ')',
            gSize: 3,
            lgSize: 3
          }
        ],
        CURRENCY_SYM: '$'
      },

      DATETIME_FORMATS: {
        MONTH: 'January,February,March,April,May,June,July,August,September,October,November,December'
                .split(','),
        SHORTMONTH:  'Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr,May,Jun,Jul,Aug,Sep,Oct,Nov,Dec'.split(','),
        DAY: 'Sunday,Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday,Saturday'.split(','),
        SHORTDAY: 'Sun,Mon,Tue,Wed,Thu,Fri,Sat'.split(','),
        AMPMS: ['AM','PM'],
        medium: 'MMM d, y h:mm:ss a',
        short: 'M/d/yy h:mm a',
        fullDate: 'EEEE, MMMM d, y',
        longDate: 'MMMM d, y',
        mediumDate: 'MMM d, y',
        shortDate: 'M/d/yy',
        mediumTime: 'h:mm:ss a',
        shortTime: 'h:mm a'
      },

      pluralCat: function(num) {
        if (num === 1) {
          return 'one';
        }
        return 'other';
      }
    };
  };
}

function $TimeoutProvider() {
  this.$get = ['$rootScope', '$browser', '$q', '$exceptionHandler',
       function($rootScope,   $browser,   $q,   $exceptionHandler) {
    var deferreds = {};


     /**
      * @ngdoc function
      * @name ng.$timeout
      * @requires $browser
      *
      * @description
      * Angular's wrapper for `window.setTimeout`. The `fn` function is wrapped into a try/catch
      * block and delegates any exceptions to
      * {@link ng.$exceptionHandler $exceptionHandler} service.
      *
      * The return value of registering a timeout function is a promise, which will be resolved when
      * the timeout is reached and the timeout function is executed.
      *
      * To cancel a timeout request, call `$timeout.cancel(promise)`.
      *
      * In tests you can use {@link ngMock.$timeout `$timeout.flush()`} to
      * synchronously flush the queue of deferred functions.
      *
      * @param {function()} fn A function, whose execution should be delayed.
      * @param {number=} [delay=0] Delay in milliseconds.
      * @param {boolean=} [invokeApply=true] If set to `false` skips model dirty checking, otherwise
      *   will invoke `fn` within the {@link ng.$rootScope.Scope#$apply $apply} block.
      * @returns {Promise} Promise that will be resolved when the timeout is reached. The value this
      *   promise will be resolved with is the return value of the `fn` function.
      */
    function timeout(fn, delay, invokeApply) {
      var deferred = $q.defer(),
          promise = deferred.promise,
          skipApply = (isDefined(invokeApply) && !invokeApply),
          timeoutId, cleanup;

      timeoutId = $browser.defer(function() {
        try {
          deferred.resolve(fn());
        } catch(e) {
          deferred.reject(e);
          $exceptionHandler(e);
        }
        finally {
          delete deferreds[promise.$$timeoutId];
        }

        if (!skipApply) $rootScope.$apply();
      }, delay);

      promise.$$timeoutId = timeoutId;
      deferreds[timeoutId] = deferred;

      return promise;
    }


     /**
      * @ngdoc function
      * @name ng.$timeout#cancel
      * @methodOf ng.$timeout
      *
      * @description
      * Cancels a task associated with the `promise`. As a result of this, the promise will be
      * resolved with a rejection.
      *
      * @param {Promise=} promise Promise returned by the `$timeout` function.
      * @returns {boolean} Returns `true` if the task hasn't executed yet and was successfully
      *   canceled.
      */
    timeout.cancel = function(promise) {
      if (promise && promise.$$timeoutId in deferreds) {
        deferreds[promise.$$timeoutId].reject('canceled');
        delete deferreds[promise.$$timeoutId];
        return $browser.defer.cancel(promise.$$timeoutId);
      }
      return false;
    };

    return timeout;
  }];
}

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.$filterProvider
 * @description
 *
 * Filters are just functions which transform input to an output. However filters need to be Dependency Injected. To
 * achieve this a filter definition consists of a factory function which is annotated with dependencies and is
 * responsible for creating a filter function.
 *
 * <pre>
 *   // Filter registration
 *   function MyModule($provide, $filterProvider) {
 *     // create a service to demonstrate injection (not always needed)
 *     $provide.value('greet', function(name){
 *       return 'Hello ' + name + '!';
 *     });
 *
 *     // register a filter factory which uses the
 *     // greet service to demonstrate DI.
 *     $filterProvider.register('greet', function(greet){
 *       // return the filter function which uses the greet service
 *       // to generate salutation
 *       return function(text) {
 *         // filters need to be forgiving so check input validity
 *         return text && greet(text) || text;
 *       };
 *     });
 *   }
 * </pre>
 *
 * The filter function is registered with the `$injector` under the filter name suffixe with `Filter`.
 * <pre>
 *   it('should be the same instance', inject(
 *     function($filterProvider) {
 *       $filterProvider.register('reverse', function(){
 *         return ...;
 *       });
 *     },
 *     function($filter, reverseFilter) {
 *       expect($filter('reverse')).toBe(reverseFilter);
 *     });
 * </pre>
 *
 *
 * For more information about how angular filters work, and how to create your own filters, see
 * {@link guide/dev_guide.templates.filters Understanding Angular Filters} in the angular Developer
 * Guide.
 */
/**
 * @ngdoc method
 * @name ng.$filterProvider#register
 * @methodOf ng.$filterProvider
 * @description
 * Register filter factory function.
 *
 * @param {String} name Name of the filter.
 * @param {function} fn The filter factory function which is injectable.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.$filter
 * @function
 * @description
 * Filters are used for formatting data displayed to the user.
 *
 * The general syntax in templates is as follows:
 *
 *         {{ expression [| filter_name[:parameter_value] ... ] }}
 *
 * @param {String} name Name of the filter function to retrieve
 * @return {Function} the filter function
 */
$FilterProvider.$inject = ['$provide'];
function $FilterProvider($provide) {
  var suffix = 'Filter';

  function register(name, factory) {
    return $provide.factory(name + suffix, factory);
  }
  this.register = register;

  this.$get = ['$injector', function($injector) {
    return function(name) {
      return $injector.get(name + suffix);
    }
  }];

  ////////////////////////////////////////

  register('currency', currencyFilter);
  register('date', dateFilter);
  register('filter', filterFilter);
  register('json', jsonFilter);
  register('limitTo', limitToFilter);
  register('lowercase', lowercaseFilter);
  register('number', numberFilter);
  register('orderBy', orderByFilter);
  register('uppercase', uppercaseFilter);
}

/**
 * @ngdoc filter
 * @name ng.filter:filter
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Selects a subset of items from `array` and returns it as a new array.
 *
 * Note: This function is used to augment the `Array` type in Angular expressions. See
 * {@link ng.$filter} for more information about Angular arrays.
 *
 * @param {Array} array The source array.
 * @param {string|Object|function()} expression The predicate to be used for selecting items from
 *   `array`.
 *
 *   Can be one of:
 *
 *   - `string`: Predicate that results in a substring match using the value of `expression`
 *     string. All strings or objects with string properties in `array` that contain this string
 *     will be returned. The predicate can be negated by prefixing the string with `!`.
 *
 *   - `Object`: A pattern object can be used to filter specific properties on objects contained
 *     by `array`. For example `{name:"M", phone:"1"}` predicate will return an array of items
 *     which have property `name` containing "M" and property `phone` containing "1". A special
 *     property name `$` can be used (as in `{$:"text"}`) to accept a match against any
 *     property of the object. That's equivalent to the simple substring match with a `string`
 *     as described above.
 *
 *   - `function`: A predicate function can be used to write arbitrary filters. The function is
 *     called for each element of `array`. The final result is an array of those elements that
 *     the predicate returned true for.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <div ng-init="friends = [{name:'John', phone:'555-1276'},
                                {name:'Mary', phone:'800-BIG-MARY'},
                                {name:'Mike', phone:'555-4321'},
                                {name:'Adam', phone:'555-5678'},
                                {name:'Julie', phone:'555-8765'}]"></div>

       Search: <input ng-model="searchText">
       <table id="searchTextResults">
         <tr><th>Name</th><th>Phone</th></tr>
         <tr ng-repeat="friend in friends | filter:searchText">
           <td>{{friend.name}}</td>
           <td>{{friend.phone}}</td>
         </tr>
       </table>
       <hr>
       Any: <input ng-model="search.$"> <br>
       Name only <input ng-model="search.name"><br>
       Phone only <input ng-model="search.phone"><br>
       <table id="searchObjResults">
         <tr><th>Name</th><th>Phone</th></tr>
         <tr ng-repeat="friend in friends | filter:search">
           <td>{{friend.name}}</td>
           <td>{{friend.phone}}</td>
         </tr>
       </table>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should search across all fields when filtering with a string', function() {
         input('searchText').enter('m');
         expect(repeater('#searchTextResults tr', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')).
           toEqual(['Mary', 'Mike', 'Adam']);

         input('searchText').enter('76');
         expect(repeater('#searchTextResults tr', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')).
           toEqual(['John', 'Julie']);
       });

       it('should search in specific fields when filtering with a predicate object', function() {
         input('search.$').enter('i');
         expect(repeater('#searchObjResults tr', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')).
           toEqual(['Mary', 'Mike', 'Julie']);
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
function filterFilter() {
  return function(array, expression) {
    if (!isArray(array)) return array;
    var predicates = [];
    predicates.check = function(value) {
      for (var j = 0; j < predicates.length; j++) {
        if(!predicates[j](value)) {
          return false;
        }
      }
      return true;
    };
    var search = function(obj, text){
      if (text.charAt(0) === '!') {
        return !search(obj, text.substr(1));
      }
      switch (typeof obj) {
        case "boolean":
        case "number":
        case "string":
          return ('' + obj).toLowerCase().indexOf(text) > -1;
        case "object":
          for ( var objKey in obj) {
            if (objKey.charAt(0) !== '$' && search(obj[objKey], text)) {
              return true;
            }
          }
          return false;
        case "array":
          for ( var i = 0; i < obj.length; i++) {
            if (search(obj[i], text)) {
              return true;
            }
          }
          return false;
        default:
          return false;
      }
    };
    switch (typeof expression) {
      case "boolean":
      case "number":
      case "string":
        expression = {$:expression};
      case "object":
        for (var key in expression) {
          if (key == '$') {
            (function() {
              var text = (''+expression[key]).toLowerCase();
              if (!text) return;
              predicates.push(function(value) {
                return search(value, text);
              });
            })();
          } else {
            (function() {
              var path = key;
              var text = (''+expression[key]).toLowerCase();
              if (!text) return;
              predicates.push(function(value) {
                return search(getter(value, path), text);
              });
            })();
          }
        }
        break;
      case 'function':
        predicates.push(expression);
        break;
      default:
        return array;
    }
    var filtered = [];
    for ( var j = 0; j < array.length; j++) {
      var value = array[j];
      if (predicates.check(value)) {
        filtered.push(value);
      }
    }
    return filtered;
  }
}

/**
 * @ngdoc filter
 * @name ng.filter:currency
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Formats a number as a currency (ie $1,234.56). When no currency symbol is provided, default
 * symbol for current locale is used.
 *
 * @param {number} amount Input to filter.
 * @param {string=} symbol Currency symbol or identifier to be displayed.
 * @returns {string} Formatted number.
 *
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.amount = 1234.56;
         }
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
         <input type="number" ng-model="amount"> <br>
         default currency symbol ($): {{amount | currency}}<br>
         custom currency identifier (USD$): {{amount | currency:"USD$"}}
       </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should init with 1234.56', function() {
         expect(binding('amount | currency')).toBe('$1,234.56');
         expect(binding('amount | currency:"USD$"')).toBe('USD$1,234.56');
       });
       it('should update', function() {
         input('amount').enter('-1234');
         expect(binding('amount | currency')).toBe('($1,234.00)');
         expect(binding('amount | currency:"USD$"')).toBe('(USD$1,234.00)');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
currencyFilter.$inject = ['$locale'];
function currencyFilter($locale) {
  var formats = $locale.NUMBER_FORMATS;
  return function(amount, currencySymbol){
    if (isUndefined(currencySymbol)) currencySymbol = formats.CURRENCY_SYM;
    return formatNumber(amount, formats.PATTERNS[1], formats.GROUP_SEP, formats.DECIMAL_SEP, 2).
                replace(/\u00A4/g, currencySymbol);
  };
}

/**
 * @ngdoc filter
 * @name ng.filter:number
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Formats a number as text.
 *
 * If the input is not a number an empty string is returned.
 *
 * @param {number|string} number Number to format.
 * @param {(number|string)=} fractionSize Number of decimal places to round the number to.
 * If this is not provided then the fraction size is computed from the current locale's number
 * formatting pattern. In the case of the default locale, it will be 3.
 * @returns {string} Number rounded to decimalPlaces and places a “,” after each third digit.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.val = 1234.56789;
         }
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
         Enter number: <input ng-model='val'><br>
         Default formatting: {{val | number}}<br>
         No fractions: {{val | number:0}}<br>
         Negative number: {{-val | number:4}}
       </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should format numbers', function() {
         expect(binding('val | number')).toBe('1,234.568');
         expect(binding('val | number:0')).toBe('1,235');
         expect(binding('-val | number:4')).toBe('-1,234.5679');
       });

       it('should update', function() {
         input('val').enter('3374.333');
         expect(binding('val | number')).toBe('3,374.333');
         expect(binding('val | number:0')).toBe('3,374');
         expect(binding('-val | number:4')).toBe('-3,374.3330');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */


numberFilter.$inject = ['$locale'];
function numberFilter($locale) {
  var formats = $locale.NUMBER_FORMATS;
  return function(number, fractionSize) {
    return formatNumber(number, formats.PATTERNS[0], formats.GROUP_SEP, formats.DECIMAL_SEP,
      fractionSize);
  };
}

var DECIMAL_SEP = '.';
function formatNumber(number, pattern, groupSep, decimalSep, fractionSize) {
  if (isNaN(number) || !isFinite(number)) return '';

  var isNegative = number < 0;
  number = Math.abs(number);
  var numStr = number + '',
      formatedText = '',
      parts = [];

  var hasExponent = false;
  if (numStr.indexOf('e') !== -1) {
    var match = numStr.match(/([\d\.]+)e(-?)(\d+)/);
    if (match && match[2] == '-' && match[3] > fractionSize + 1) {
      numStr = '0';
    } else {
      formatedText = numStr;
      hasExponent = true;
    }
  }

  if (!hasExponent) {
    var fractionLen = (numStr.split(DECIMAL_SEP)[1] || '').length;

    // determine fractionSize if it is not specified
    if (isUndefined(fractionSize)) {
      fractionSize = Math.min(Math.max(pattern.minFrac, fractionLen), pattern.maxFrac);
    }

    var pow = Math.pow(10, fractionSize);
    number = Math.round(number * pow) / pow;
    var fraction = ('' + number).split(DECIMAL_SEP);
    var whole = fraction[0];
    fraction = fraction[1] || '';

    var pos = 0,
        lgroup = pattern.lgSize,
        group = pattern.gSize;

    if (whole.length >= (lgroup + group)) {
      pos = whole.length - lgroup;
      for (var i = 0; i < pos; i++) {
        if ((pos - i)%group === 0 && i !== 0) {
          formatedText += groupSep;
        }
        formatedText += whole.charAt(i);
      }
    }

    for (i = pos; i < whole.length; i++) {
      if ((whole.length - i)%lgroup === 0 && i !== 0) {
        formatedText += groupSep;
      }
      formatedText += whole.charAt(i);
    }

    // format fraction part.
    while(fraction.length < fractionSize) {
      fraction += '0';
    }

    if (fractionSize && fractionSize !== "0") formatedText += decimalSep + fraction.substr(0, fractionSize);
  } else {

    if (fractionSize > 0 && number > -1 && number < 1) {
      formatedText = number.toFixed(fractionSize);
    }
  }

  parts.push(isNegative ? pattern.negPre : pattern.posPre);
  parts.push(formatedText);
  parts.push(isNegative ? pattern.negSuf : pattern.posSuf);
  return parts.join('');
}

function padNumber(num, digits, trim) {
  var neg = '';
  if (num < 0) {
    neg =  '-';
    num = -num;
  }
  num = '' + num;
  while(num.length < digits) num = '0' + num;
  if (trim)
    num = num.substr(num.length - digits);
  return neg + num;
}


function dateGetter(name, size, offset, trim) {
  offset = offset || 0;
  return function(date) {
    var value = date['get' + name]();
    if (offset > 0 || value > -offset)
      value += offset;
    if (value === 0 && offset == -12 ) value = 12;
    return padNumber(value, size, trim);
  };
}

function dateStrGetter(name, shortForm) {
  return function(date, formats) {
    var value = date['get' + name]();
    var get = uppercase(shortForm ? ('SHORT' + name) : name);

    return formats[get][value];
  };
}

function timeZoneGetter(date) {
  var zone = -1 * date.getTimezoneOffset();
  var paddedZone = (zone >= 0) ? "+" : "";

  paddedZone += padNumber(Math[zone > 0 ? 'floor' : 'ceil'](zone / 60), 2) +
                padNumber(Math.abs(zone % 60), 2);

  return paddedZone;
}

function ampmGetter(date, formats) {
  return date.getHours() < 12 ? formats.AMPMS[0] : formats.AMPMS[1];
}

var DATE_FORMATS = {
  yyyy: dateGetter('FullYear', 4),
    yy: dateGetter('FullYear', 2, 0, true),
     y: dateGetter('FullYear', 1),
  MMMM: dateStrGetter('Month'),
   MMM: dateStrGetter('Month', true),
    MM: dateGetter('Month', 2, 1),
     M: dateGetter('Month', 1, 1),
    dd: dateGetter('Date', 2),
     d: dateGetter('Date', 1),
    HH: dateGetter('Hours', 2),
     H: dateGetter('Hours', 1),
    hh: dateGetter('Hours', 2, -12),
     h: dateGetter('Hours', 1, -12),
    mm: dateGetter('Minutes', 2),
     m: dateGetter('Minutes', 1),
    ss: dateGetter('Seconds', 2),
     s: dateGetter('Seconds', 1),
  EEEE: dateStrGetter('Day'),
   EEE: dateStrGetter('Day', true),
     a: ampmGetter,
     Z: timeZoneGetter
};

var DATE_FORMATS_SPLIT = /((?:[^yMdHhmsaZE']+)|(?:'(?:[^']|'')*')|(?:E+|y+|M+|d+|H+|h+|m+|s+|a|Z))(.*)/,
    NUMBER_STRING = /^\d+$/;

/**
 * @ngdoc filter
 * @name ng.filter:date
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 *   Formats `date` to a string based on the requested `format`.
 *
 *   `format` string can be composed of the following elements:
 *
 *   * `'yyyy'`: 4 digit representation of year (e.g. AD 1 => 0001, AD 2010 => 2010)
 *   * `'yy'`: 2 digit representation of year, padded (00-99). (e.g. AD 2001 => 01, AD 2010 => 10)
 *   * `'y'`: 1 digit representation of year, e.g. (AD 1 => 1, AD 199 => 199)
 *   * `'MMMM'`: Month in year (January-December)
 *   * `'MMM'`: Month in year (Jan-Dec)
 *   * `'MM'`: Month in year, padded (01-12)
 *   * `'M'`: Month in year (1-12)
 *   * `'dd'`: Day in month, padded (01-31)
 *   * `'d'`: Day in month (1-31)
 *   * `'EEEE'`: Day in Week,(Sunday-Saturday)
 *   * `'EEE'`: Day in Week, (Sun-Sat)
 *   * `'HH'`: Hour in day, padded (00-23)
 *   * `'H'`: Hour in day (0-23)
 *   * `'hh'`: Hour in am/pm, padded (01-12)
 *   * `'h'`: Hour in am/pm, (1-12)
 *   * `'mm'`: Minute in hour, padded (00-59)
 *   * `'m'`: Minute in hour (0-59)
 *   * `'ss'`: Second in minute, padded (00-59)
 *   * `'s'`: Second in minute (0-59)
 *   * `'a'`: am/pm marker
 *   * `'Z'`: 4 digit (+sign) representation of the timezone offset (-1200-+1200)
 *
 *   `format` string can also be one of the following predefined
 *   {@link guide/i18n localizable formats}:
 *
 *   * `'medium'`: equivalent to `'MMM d, y h:mm:ss a'` for en_US locale
 *     (e.g. Sep 3, 2010 12:05:08 pm)
 *   * `'short'`: equivalent to `'M/d/yy h:mm a'` for en_US  locale (e.g. 9/3/10 12:05 pm)
 *   * `'fullDate'`: equivalent to `'EEEE, MMMM d,y'` for en_US  locale
 *     (e.g. Friday, September 3, 2010)
 *   * `'longDate'`: equivalent to `'MMMM d, y'` for en_US  locale (e.g. September 3, 2010)
 *   * `'mediumDate'`: equivalent to `'MMM d, y'` for en_US  locale (e.g. Sep 3, 2010)
 *   * `'shortDate'`: equivalent to `'M/d/yy'` for en_US locale (e.g. 9/3/10)
 *   * `'mediumTime'`: equivalent to `'h:mm:ss a'` for en_US locale (e.g. 12:05:08 pm)
 *   * `'shortTime'`: equivalent to `'h:mm a'` for en_US locale (e.g. 12:05 pm)
 *
 *   `format` string can contain literal values. These need to be quoted with single quotes (e.g.
 *   `"h 'in the morning'"`). In order to output single quote, use two single quotes in a sequence
 *   (e.g. `"h 'o''clock'"`).
 *
 * @param {(Date|number|string)} date Date to format either as Date object, milliseconds (string or
 *    number) or various ISO 8601 datetime string formats (e.g. yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss.SSSZ and its
 *    shorter versions like yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mmZ, yyyy-MM-dd or yyyyMMddTHHmmssZ). If no timezone is
 *    specified in the string input, the time is considered to be in the local timezone.
 * @param {string=} format Formatting rules (see Description). If not specified,
 *    `mediumDate` is used.
 * @returns {string} Formatted string or the input if input is not recognized as date/millis.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <span ng-non-bindable>{{1288323623006 | date:'medium'}}</span>:
           {{1288323623006 | date:'medium'}}<br>
       <span ng-non-bindable>{{1288323623006 | date:'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss Z'}}</span>:
          {{1288323623006 | date:'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss Z'}}<br>
       <span ng-non-bindable>{{1288323623006 | date:'MM/dd/yyyy @ h:mma'}}</span>:
          {{'1288323623006' | date:'MM/dd/yyyy @ h:mma'}}<br>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should format date', function() {
         expect(binding("1288323623006 | date:'medium'")).
            toMatch(/Oct 2\d, 2010 \d{1,2}:\d{2}:\d{2} (AM|PM)/);
         expect(binding("1288323623006 | date:'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss Z'")).
            toMatch(/2010\-10\-2\d \d{2}:\d{2}:\d{2} (\-|\+)?\d{4}/);
         expect(binding("'1288323623006' | date:'MM/dd/yyyy @ h:mma'")).
            toMatch(/10\/2\d\/2010 @ \d{1,2}:\d{2}(AM|PM)/);
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
dateFilter.$inject = ['$locale'];
function dateFilter($locale) {


  var R_ISO8601_STR = /^(\d{4})-?(\d\d)-?(\d\d)(?:T(\d\d)(?::?(\d\d)(?::?(\d\d)(?:\.(\d+))?)?)?(Z|([+-])(\d\d):?(\d\d))?)?$/;
  function jsonStringToDate(string){
    var match;
    if (match = string.match(R_ISO8601_STR)) {
      var date = new Date(0),
          tzHour = 0,
          tzMin  = 0;
      if (match[9]) {
        tzHour = int(match[9] + match[10]);
        tzMin = int(match[9] + match[11]);
      }
      date.setUTCFullYear(int(match[1]), int(match[2]) - 1, int(match[3]));
      date.setUTCHours(int(match[4]||0) - tzHour, int(match[5]||0) - tzMin, int(match[6]||0), int(match[7]||0));
      return date;
    }
    return string;
  }


  return function(date, format) {
    var text = '',
        parts = [],
        fn, match;

    format = format || 'mediumDate';
    format = $locale.DATETIME_FORMATS[format] || format;
    if (isString(date)) {
      if (NUMBER_STRING.test(date)) {
        date = int(date);
      } else {
        date = jsonStringToDate(date);
      }
    }

    if (isNumber(date)) {
      date = new Date(date);
    }

    if (!isDate(date)) {
      return date;
    }

    while(format) {
      match = DATE_FORMATS_SPLIT.exec(format);
      if (match) {
        parts = concat(parts, match, 1);
        format = parts.pop();
      } else {
        parts.push(format);
        format = null;
      }
    }

    forEach(parts, function(value){
      fn = DATE_FORMATS[value];
      text += fn ? fn(date, $locale.DATETIME_FORMATS)
                 : value.replace(/(^'|'$)/g, '').replace(/''/g, "'");
    });

    return text;
  };
}


/**
 * @ngdoc filter
 * @name ng.filter:json
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 *   Allows you to convert a JavaScript object into JSON string.
 *
 *   This filter is mostly useful for debugging. When using the double curly {{value}} notation
 *   the binding is automatically converted to JSON.
 *
 * @param {*} object Any JavaScript object (including arrays and primitive types) to filter.
 * @returns {string} JSON string.
 *
 *
 * @example:
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <pre>{{ {'name':'value'} | json }}</pre>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should jsonify filtered objects', function() {
         expect(binding("{'name':'value'}")).toMatch(/\{\n  "name": ?"value"\n}/);
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 *
 */
function jsonFilter() {
  return function(object) {
    return toJson(object, true);
  };
}


/**
 * @ngdoc filter
 * @name ng.filter:lowercase
 * @function
 * @description
 * Converts string to lowercase.
 * @see angular.lowercase
 */
var lowercaseFilter = valueFn(lowercase);


/**
 * @ngdoc filter
 * @name ng.filter:uppercase
 * @function
 * @description
 * Converts string to uppercase.
 * @see angular.uppercase
 */
var uppercaseFilter = valueFn(uppercase);

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.filter:limitTo
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Creates a new array containing only a specified number of elements in an array. The elements
 * are taken from either the beginning or the end of the source array, as specified by the
 * value and sign (positive or negative) of `limit`.
 *
 * Note: This function is used to augment the `Array` type in Angular expressions. See
 * {@link ng.$filter} for more information about Angular arrays.
 *
 * @param {Array} array Source array to be limited.
 * @param {string|Number} limit The length of the returned array. If the `limit` number is
 *     positive, `limit` number of items from the beginning of the source array are copied.
 *     If the number is negative, `limit` number  of items from the end of the source array are
 *     copied. The `limit` will be trimmed if it exceeds `array.length`
 * @returns {Array} A new sub-array of length `limit` or less if input array had less than `limit`
 *     elements.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.numbers = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9];
           $scope.limit = 3;
         }
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
         Limit {{numbers}} to: <input type="integer" ng-model="limit">
         <p>Output: {{ numbers | limitTo:limit }}</p>
       </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should limit the numer array to first three items', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live input[ng-model=limit]').val()).toBe('3');
         expect(binding('numbers | limitTo:limit')).toEqual('[1,2,3]');
       });

       it('should update the output when -3 is entered', function() {
         input('limit').enter(-3);
         expect(binding('numbers | limitTo:limit')).toEqual('[7,8,9]');
       });

       it('should not exceed the maximum size of input array', function() {
         input('limit').enter(100);
         expect(binding('numbers | limitTo:limit')).toEqual('[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
function limitToFilter(){
  return function(array, limit) {
    if (!(array instanceof Array)) return array;
    limit = int(limit);
    var out = [],
      i, n;

    // check that array is iterable
    if (!array || !(array instanceof Array))
      return out;

    // if abs(limit) exceeds maximum length, trim it
    if (limit > array.length)
      limit = array.length;
    else if (limit < -array.length)
      limit = -array.length;

    if (limit > 0) {
      i = 0;
      n = limit;
    } else {
      i = array.length + limit;
      n = array.length;
    }

    for (; i<n; i++) {
      out.push(array[i]);
    }

    return out;
  }
}

/**
 * @ngdoc function
 * @name ng.filter:orderBy
 * @function
 *
 * @description
 * Orders a specified `array` by the `expression` predicate.
 *
 * Note: this function is used to augment the `Array` type in Angular expressions. See
 * {@link ng.$filter} for more informaton about Angular arrays.
 *
 * @param {Array} array The array to sort.
 * @param {function(*)|string|Array.<(function(*)|string)>} expression A predicate to be
 *    used by the comparator to determine the order of elements.
 *
 *    Can be one of:
 *
 *    - `function`: Getter function. The result of this function will be sorted using the
 *      `<`, `=`, `>` operator.
 *    - `string`: An Angular expression which evaluates to an object to order by, such as 'name'
 *      to sort by a property called 'name'. Optionally prefixed with `+` or `-` to control
 *      ascending or descending sort order (for example, +name or -name).
 *    - `Array`: An array of function or string predicates. The first predicate in the array
 *      is used for sorting, but when two items are equivalent, the next predicate is used.
 *
 * @param {boolean=} reverse Reverse the order the array.
 * @returns {Array} Sorted copy of the source array.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.friends =
               [{name:'John', phone:'555-1212', age:10},
                {name:'Mary', phone:'555-9876', age:19},
                {name:'Mike', phone:'555-4321', age:21},
                {name:'Adam', phone:'555-5678', age:35},
                {name:'Julie', phone:'555-8765', age:29}]
           $scope.predicate = '-age';
         }
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
         <pre>Sorting predicate = {{predicate}}; reverse = {{reverse}}</pre>
         <hr/>
         [ <a href="" ng-click="predicate=''">unsorted</a> ]
         <table class="friend">
           <tr>
             <th><a href="" ng-click="predicate = 'name'; reverse=false">Name</a>
                 (<a href ng-click="predicate = '-name'; reverse=false">^</a>)</th>
             <th><a href="" ng-click="predicate = 'phone'; reverse=!reverse">Phone Number</a></th>
             <th><a href="" ng-click="predicate = 'age'; reverse=!reverse">Age</a></th>
           </tr>
           <tr ng-repeat="friend in friends | orderBy:predicate:reverse">
             <td>{{friend.name}}</td>
             <td>{{friend.phone}}</td>
             <td>{{friend.age}}</td>
           </tr>
         </table>
       </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should be reverse ordered by aged', function() {
         expect(binding('predicate')).toBe('-age');
         expect(repeater('table.friend', 'friend in friends').column('friend.age')).
           toEqual(['35', '29', '21', '19', '10']);
         expect(repeater('table.friend', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')).
           toEqual(['Adam', 'Julie', 'Mike', 'Mary', 'John']);
       });

       it('should reorder the table when user selects different predicate', function() {
         element('.doc-example-live a:contains("Name")').click();
         expect(repeater('table.friend', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')).
           toEqual(['Adam', 'John', 'Julie', 'Mary', 'Mike']);
         expect(repeater('table.friend', 'friend in friends').column('friend.age')).
           toEqual(['35', '10', '29', '19', '21']);

         element('.doc-example-live a:contains("Phone")').click();
         expect(repeater('table.friend', 'friend in friends').column('friend.phone')).
           toEqual(['555-9876', '555-8765', '555-5678', '555-4321', '555-1212']);
         expect(repeater('table.friend', 'friend in friends').column('friend.name')).
           toEqual(['Mary', 'Julie', 'Adam', 'Mike', 'John']);
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
orderByFilter.$inject = ['$parse'];
function orderByFilter($parse){
  return function(array, sortPredicate, reverseOrder) {
    if (!isArray(array)) return array;
    if (!sortPredicate) return array;
    sortPredicate = isArray(sortPredicate) ? sortPredicate: [sortPredicate];
    sortPredicate = map(sortPredicate, function(predicate){
      var descending = false, get = predicate || identity;
      if (isString(predicate)) {
        if ((predicate.charAt(0) == '+' || predicate.charAt(0) == '-')) {
          descending = predicate.charAt(0) == '-';
          predicate = predicate.substring(1);
        }
        get = $parse(predicate);
      }
      return reverseComparator(function(a,b){
        return compare(get(a),get(b));
      }, descending);
    });
    var arrayCopy = [];
    for ( var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) { arrayCopy.push(array[i]); }
    return arrayCopy.sort(reverseComparator(comparator, reverseOrder));

    function comparator(o1, o2){
      for ( var i = 0; i < sortPredicate.length; i++) {
        var comp = sortPredicate[i](o1, o2);
        if (comp !== 0) return comp;
      }
      return 0;
    }
    function reverseComparator(comp, descending) {
      return toBoolean(descending)
          ? function(a,b){return comp(b,a);}
          : comp;
    }
    function compare(v1, v2){
      var t1 = typeof v1;
      var t2 = typeof v2;
      if (t1 == t2) {
        if (t1 == "string") {
           v1 = v1.toLowerCase();
           v2 = v2.toLowerCase();
        }
        if (v1 === v2) return 0;
        return v1 < v2 ? -1 : 1;
      } else {
        return t1 < t2 ? -1 : 1;
      }
    }
  }
}

function ngDirective(directive) {
  if (isFunction(directive)) {
    directive = {
      link: directive
    }
  }
  directive.restrict = directive.restrict || 'AC';
  return valueFn(directive);
}

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:a
 * @restrict E
 *
 * @description
 * Modifies the default behavior of html A tag, so that the default action is prevented when href
 * attribute is empty.
 *
 * The reasoning for this change is to allow easy creation of action links with `ngClick` directive
 * without changing the location or causing page reloads, e.g.:
 * `<a href="" ng-click="model.$save()">Save</a>`
 */
var htmlAnchorDirective = valueFn({
  restrict: 'E',
  compile: function(element, attr) {

    if (msie <= 8) {

      // turn <a href ng-click="..">link</a> into a stylable link in IE
      // but only if it doesn't have name attribute, in which case it's an anchor
      if (!attr.href && !attr.name) {
        attr.$set('href', '');
      }

      // add a comment node to anchors to workaround IE bug that causes element content to be reset
      // to new attribute content if attribute is updated with value containing @ and element also
      // contains value with @
      // see issue #1949
      element.append(document.createComment('IE fix'));
    }

    return function(scope, element) {
      element.bind('click', function(event){
        // if we have no href url, then don't navigate anywhere.
        if (!element.attr('href')) {
          event.preventDefault();
        }
      });
    }
  }
});

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngHref
 * @restrict A
 *
 * @description
 * Using Angular markup like {{hash}} in an href attribute makes
 * the page open to a wrong URL, if the user clicks that link before
 * angular has a chance to replace the {{hash}} with actual URL, the
 * link will be broken and will most likely return a 404 error.
 * The `ngHref` directive solves this problem.
 *
 * The buggy way to write it:
 * <pre>
 * <a href="http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/{{hash}}"/>
 * </pre>
 *
 * The correct way to write it:
 * <pre>
 * <a ng-href="http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/{{hash}}"/>
 * </pre>
 *
 * @element A
 * @param {template} ngHref any string which can contain `{{}}` markup.
 *
 * @example
 * This example uses `link` variable inside `href` attribute:
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        <input ng-model="value" /><br />
        <a id="link-1" href ng-click="value = 1">link 1</a> (link, don't reload)<br />
        <a id="link-2" href="" ng-click="value = 2">link 2</a> (link, don't reload)<br />
        <a id="link-3" ng-href="/{{'123'}}">link 3</a> (link, reload!)<br />
        <a id="link-4" href="" name="xx" ng-click="value = 4">anchor</a> (link, don't reload)<br />
        <a id="link-5" name="xxx" ng-click="value = 5">anchor</a> (no link)<br />
        <a id="link-6" ng-href="{{value}}">link</a> (link, change location)
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should execute ng-click but not reload when href without value', function() {
          element('#link-1').click();
          expect(input('value').val()).toEqual('1');
          expect(element('#link-1').attr('href')).toBe("");
        });

        it('should execute ng-click but not reload when href empty string', function() {
          element('#link-2').click();
          expect(input('value').val()).toEqual('2');
          expect(element('#link-2').attr('href')).toBe("");
        });

        it('should execute ng-click and change url when ng-href specified', function() {
          expect(element('#link-3').attr('href')).toBe("/123");

          element('#link-3').click();
          expect(browser().window().path()).toEqual('/123');
        });

        it('should execute ng-click but not reload when href empty string and name specified', function() {
          element('#link-4').click();
          expect(input('value').val()).toEqual('4');
          expect(element('#link-4').attr('href')).toBe('');
        });

        it('should execute ng-click but not reload when no href but name specified', function() {
          element('#link-5').click();
          expect(input('value').val()).toEqual('5');
          expect(element('#link-5').attr('href')).toBe(undefined);
        });

        it('should only change url when only ng-href', function() {
          input('value').enter('6');
          expect(element('#link-6').attr('href')).toBe('6');

          element('#link-6').click();
          expect(browser().location().url()).toEqual('/6');
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngSrc
 * @restrict A
 *
 * @description
 * Using Angular markup like `{{hash}}` in a `src` attribute doesn't
 * work right: The browser will fetch from the URL with the literal
 * text `{{hash}}` until Angular replaces the expression inside
 * `{{hash}}`. The `ngSrc` directive solves this problem.
 *
 * The buggy way to write it:
 * <pre>
 * <img src="http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/{{hash}}"/>
 * </pre>
 *
 * The correct way to write it:
 * <pre>
 * <img ng-src="http://www.gravatar.com/avatar/{{hash}}"/>
 * </pre>
 *
 * @element IMG
 * @param {template} ngSrc any string which can contain `{{}}` markup.
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngDisabled
 * @restrict A
 *
 * @description
 *
 * The following markup will make the button enabled on Chrome/Firefox but not on IE8 and older IEs:
 * <pre>
 * <div ng-init="scope = { isDisabled: false }">
 *  <button disabled="{{scope.isDisabled}}">Disabled</button>
 * </div>
 * </pre>
 *
 * The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as disabled.
 * (The presence of them means true and absence means false)
 * This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression.
 * To solve this problem, we introduce the `ngDisabled` directive.
 *
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        Click me to toggle: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/>
        <button ng-model="button" ng-disabled="checked">Button</button>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should toggle button', function() {
          expect(element('.doc-example-live :button').prop('disabled')).toBeFalsy();
          input('checked').check();
          expect(element('.doc-example-live :button').prop('disabled')).toBeTruthy();
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 *
 * @element INPUT
 * @param {expression} ngDisabled Angular expression that will be evaluated.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngChecked
 * @restrict A
 *
 * @description
 * The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as checked.
 * (The presence of them means true and absence means false)
 * This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression.
 * To solve this problem, we introduce the `ngChecked` directive.
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        Check me to check both: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="master"><br/>
        <input id="checkSlave" type="checkbox" ng-checked="master">
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should check both checkBoxes', function() {
          expect(element('.doc-example-live #checkSlave').prop('checked')).toBeFalsy();
          input('master').check();
          expect(element('.doc-example-live #checkSlave').prop('checked')).toBeTruthy();
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 *
 * @element INPUT
 * @param {expression} ngChecked Angular expression that will be evaluated.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngMultiple
 * @restrict A
 *
 * @description
 * The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as multiple.
 * (The presence of them means true and absence means false)
 * This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression.
 * To solve this problem, we introduce the `ngMultiple` directive.
 *
 * @example
     <doc:example>
       <doc:source>
         Check me check multiple: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/>
         <select id="select" ng-multiple="checked">
           <option>Misko</option>
           <option>Igor</option>
           <option>Vojta</option>
           <option>Di</option>
         </select>
       </doc:source>
       <doc:scenario>
         it('should toggle multiple', function() {
           expect(element('.doc-example-live #select').prop('multiple')).toBeFalsy();
           input('checked').check();
           expect(element('.doc-example-live #select').prop('multiple')).toBeTruthy();
         });
       </doc:scenario>
     </doc:example>
 *
 * @element SELECT
 * @param {expression} ngMultiple Angular expression that will be evaluated.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngReadonly
 * @restrict A
 *
 * @description
 * The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as readonly.
 * (The presence of them means true and absence means false)
 * This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression.
 * To solve this problem, we introduce the `ngReadonly` directive.
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        Check me to make text readonly: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/>
        <input type="text" ng-readonly="checked" value="I'm Angular"/>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should toggle readonly attr', function() {
          expect(element('.doc-example-live :text').prop('readonly')).toBeFalsy();
          input('checked').check();
          expect(element('.doc-example-live :text').prop('readonly')).toBeTruthy();
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 *
 * @element INPUT
 * @param {string} expression Angular expression that will be evaluated.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngSelected
 * @restrict A
 *
 * @description
 * The HTML specs do not require browsers to preserve the special attributes such as selected.
 * (The presence of them means true and absence means false)
 * This prevents the angular compiler from correctly retrieving the binding expression.
 * To solve this problem, we introduced the `ngSelected` directive.
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        Check me to select: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="selected"><br/>
        <select>
          <option>Hello!</option>
          <option id="greet" ng-selected="selected">Greetings!</option>
        </select>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should select Greetings!', function() {
          expect(element('.doc-example-live #greet').prop('selected')).toBeFalsy();
          input('selected').check();
          expect(element('.doc-example-live #greet').prop('selected')).toBeTruthy();
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 *
 * @element OPTION
 * @param {string} expression Angular expression that will be evaluated.
 */


var ngAttributeAliasDirectives = {};


// boolean attrs are evaluated
forEach(BOOLEAN_ATTR, function(propName, attrName) {
  var normalized = directiveNormalize('ng-' + attrName);
  ngAttributeAliasDirectives[normalized] = function() {
    return {
      priority: 100,
      compile: function() {
        return function(scope, element, attr) {
          scope.$watch(attr[normalized], function ngBooleanAttrWatchAction(value) {
            attr.$set(attrName, !!value);
          });
        };
      }
    };
  };
});


// ng-src, ng-href are interpolated
forEach(['src', 'href'], function(attrName) {
  var normalized = directiveNormalize('ng-' + attrName);
  ngAttributeAliasDirectives[normalized] = function() {
    return {
      priority: 99, // it needs to run after the attributes are interpolated
      link: function(scope, element, attr) {
        attr.$observe(normalized, function(value) {
          if (!value)
             return;

          attr.$set(attrName, value);

          // on IE, if "ng:src" directive declaration is used and "src" attribute doesn't exist
          // then calling element.setAttribute('src', 'foo') doesn't do anything, so we need
          // to set the property as well to achieve the desired effect.
          // we use attr[attrName] value since $set can sanitize the url.
          if (msie) element.prop(attrName, attr[attrName]);
        });
      }
    };
  };
});

var nullFormCtrl = {
  $addControl: noop,
  $removeControl: noop,
  $setValidity: noop,
  $setDirty: noop
};

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.directive:form.FormController
 *
 * @property {boolean} $pristine True if user has not interacted with the form yet.
 * @property {boolean} $dirty True if user has already interacted with the form.
 * @property {boolean} $valid True if all of the containing forms and controls are valid.
 * @property {boolean} $invalid True if at least one containing control or form is invalid.
 *
 * @property {Object} $error Is an object hash, containing references to all invalid controls or
 *  forms, where:
 *
 *  - keys are validation tokens (error names) — such as `required`, `url` or `email`),
 *  - values are arrays of controls or forms that are invalid with given error.
 *
 * @description
 * `FormController` keeps track of all its controls and nested forms as well as state of them,
 * such as being valid/invalid or dirty/pristine.
 *
 * Each {@link ng.directive:form form} directive creates an instance
 * of `FormController`.
 *
 */
//asks for $scope to fool the BC controller module
FormController.$inject = ['$element', '$attrs', '$scope'];
function FormController(element, attrs) {
  var form = this,
      parentForm = element.parent().controller('form') || nullFormCtrl,
      invalidCount = 0, // used to easily determine if we are valid
      errors = form.$error = {};

  // init state
  form.$name = attrs.name || attrs.ngForm;
  form.$dirty = false;
  form.$pristine = true;
  form.$valid = true;
  form.$invalid = false;

  parentForm.$addControl(form);

  // Setup initial state of the control
  element.addClass(PRISTINE_CLASS);
  toggleValidCss(true);

  // convenience method for easy toggling of classes
  function toggleValidCss(isValid, validationErrorKey) {
    validationErrorKey = validationErrorKey ? '-' + snake_case(validationErrorKey, '-') : '';
    element.
      removeClass((isValid ? INVALID_CLASS : VALID_CLASS) + validationErrorKey).
      addClass((isValid ? VALID_CLASS : INVALID_CLASS) + validationErrorKey);
  }

  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.directive:form.FormController#$addControl
   * @methodOf ng.directive:form.FormController
   *
   * @description
   * Register a control with the form.
   *
   * Input elements using ngModelController do this automatically when they are linked.
   */
  form.$addControl = function(control) {
    if (control.$name && !form.hasOwnProperty(control.$name)) {
      form[control.$name] = control;
    }
  };

  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.directive:form.FormController#$removeControl
   * @methodOf ng.directive:form.FormController
   *
   * @description
   * Deregister a control from the form.
   *
   * Input elements using ngModelController do this automatically when they are destroyed.
   */
  form.$removeControl = function(control) {
    if (control.$name && form[control.$name] === control) {
      delete form[control.$name];
    }
    forEach(errors, function(queue, validationToken) {
      form.$setValidity(validationToken, true, control);
    });
  };

  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.directive:form.FormController#$setValidity
   * @methodOf ng.directive:form.FormController
   *
   * @description
   * Sets the validity of a form control.
   *
   * This method will also propagate to parent forms.
   */
  form.$setValidity = function(validationToken, isValid, control) {
    var queue = errors[validationToken];

    if (isValid) {
      if (queue) {
        arrayRemove(queue, control);
        if (!queue.length) {
          invalidCount--;
          if (!invalidCount) {
            toggleValidCss(isValid);
            form.$valid = true;
            form.$invalid = false;
          }
          errors[validationToken] = false;
          toggleValidCss(true, validationToken);
          parentForm.$setValidity(validationToken, true, form);
        }
      }

    } else {
      if (!invalidCount) {
        toggleValidCss(isValid);
      }
      if (queue) {
        if (includes(queue, control)) return;
      } else {
        errors[validationToken] = queue = [];
        invalidCount++;
        toggleValidCss(false, validationToken);
        parentForm.$setValidity(validationToken, false, form);
      }
      queue.push(control);

      form.$valid = false;
      form.$invalid = true;
    }
  };

  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.directive:form.FormController#$setDirty
   * @methodOf ng.directive:form.FormController
   *
   * @description
   * Sets the form to a dirty state.
   *
   * This method can be called to add the 'ng-dirty' class and set the form to a dirty
   * state (ng-dirty class). This method will also propagate to parent forms.
   */
  form.$setDirty = function() {
    element.removeClass(PRISTINE_CLASS).addClass(DIRTY_CLASS);
    form.$dirty = true;
    form.$pristine = false;
    parentForm.$setDirty();
  };

}


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngForm
 * @restrict EAC
 *
 * @description
 * Nestable alias of {@link ng.directive:form `form`} directive. HTML
 * does not allow nesting of form elements. It is useful to nest forms, for example if the validity of a
 * sub-group of controls needs to be determined.
 *
 * @param {string=} name|ngForm Name of the form. If specified, the form controller will be published into
 *                       related scope, under this name.
 *
 */

 /**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:form
 * @restrict E
 *
 * @description
 * Directive that instantiates
 * {@link ng.directive:form.FormController FormController}.
 *
 * If `name` attribute is specified, the form controller is published onto the current scope under
 * this name.
 *
 * # Alias: {@link ng.directive:ngForm `ngForm`}
 *
 * In angular forms can be nested. This means that the outer form is valid when all of the child
 * forms are valid as well. However browsers do not allow nesting of `<form>` elements, for this
 * reason angular provides {@link ng.directive:ngForm `ngForm`} alias
 * which behaves identical to `<form>` but allows form nesting.
 *
 *
 * # CSS classes
 *  - `ng-valid` Is set if the form is valid.
 *  - `ng-invalid` Is set if the form is invalid.
 *  - `ng-pristine` Is set if the form is pristine.
 *  - `ng-dirty` Is set if the form is dirty.
 *
 *
 * # Submitting a form and preventing default action
 *
 * Since the role of forms in client-side Angular applications is different than in classical
 * roundtrip apps, it is desirable for the browser not to translate the form submission into a full
 * page reload that sends the data to the server. Instead some javascript logic should be triggered
 * to handle the form submission in application specific way.
 *
 * For this reason, Angular prevents the default action (form submission to the server) unless the
 * `<form>` element has an `action` attribute specified.
 *
 * You can use one of the following two ways to specify what javascript method should be called when
 * a form is submitted:
 *
 * - {@link ng.directive:ngSubmit ngSubmit} directive on the form element
 * - {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick} directive on the first
  *  button or input field of type submit (input[type=submit])
 *
 * To prevent double execution of the handler, use only one of ngSubmit or ngClick directives. This
 * is because of the following form submission rules coming from the html spec:
 *
 * - If a form has only one input field then hitting enter in this field triggers form submit
 * (`ngSubmit`)
 * - if a form has has 2+ input fields and no buttons or input[type=submit] then hitting enter
 * doesn't trigger submit
 * - if a form has one or more input fields and one or more buttons or input[type=submit] then
 * hitting enter in any of the input fields will trigger the click handler on the *first* button or
 * input[type=submit] (`ngClick`) *and* a submit handler on the enclosing form (`ngSubmit`)
 *
 * @param {string=} name Name of the form. If specified, the form controller will be published into
 *                       related scope, under this name.
 *
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.userType = 'guest';
         }
       </script>
       <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl">
         userType: <input name="input" ng-model="userType" required>
         <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required">Required!</span><br>
         <tt>userType = {{userType}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br>
        </form>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should initialize to model', function() {
         expect(binding('userType')).toEqual('guest');
         expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true');
        });

        it('should be invalid if empty', function() {
         input('userType').enter('');
         expect(binding('userType')).toEqual('');
         expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */
var formDirectiveFactory = function(isNgForm) {
  return ['$timeout', function($timeout) {
    var formDirective = {
      name: 'form',
      restrict: 'E',
      controller: FormController,
      compile: function() {
        return {
          pre: function(scope, formElement, attr, controller) {
            if (!attr.action) {
              // we can't use jq events because if a form is destroyed during submission the default
              // action is not prevented. see #1238
              //
              // IE 9 is not affected because it doesn't fire a submit event and try to do a full
              // page reload if the form was destroyed by submission of the form via a click handler
              // on a button in the form. Looks like an IE9 specific bug.
              var preventDefaultListener = function(event) {
                event.preventDefault
                  ? event.preventDefault()
                  : event.returnValue = false; // IE
              };

              addEventListenerFn(formElement[0], 'submit', preventDefaultListener);

              // unregister the preventDefault listener so that we don't not leak memory but in a
              // way that will achieve the prevention of the default action.
              formElement.bind('$destroy', function() {
                $timeout(function() {
                  removeEventListenerFn(formElement[0], 'submit', preventDefaultListener);
                }, 0, false);
              });
            }

            var parentFormCtrl = formElement.parent().controller('form'),
                alias = attr.name || attr.ngForm;

            if (alias) {
              scope[alias] = controller;
            }
            if (parentFormCtrl) {
              formElement.bind('$destroy', function() {
                parentFormCtrl.$removeControl(controller);
                if (alias) {
                  scope[alias] = undefined;
                }
                extend(controller, nullFormCtrl); //stop propagating child destruction handlers upwards
              });
            }
          }
        };
      }
    };

    return isNgForm ? extend(copy(formDirective), {restrict: 'EAC'}) : formDirective;
  }];
};

var formDirective = formDirectiveFactory();
var ngFormDirective = formDirectiveFactory(true);

var URL_REGEXP = /^(ftp|http|https):\/\/(\w+:{0,1}\w*@)?(\S+)(:[0-9]+)?(\/|\/([\w#!:.?+=&%@!\-\/]))?$/;
var EMAIL_REGEXP = /^[A-Za-z0-9._%+-]+@[A-Za-z0-9.-]+\.[A-Za-z]{2,6}$/;
var NUMBER_REGEXP = /^\s*(\-|\+)?(\d+|(\d*(\.\d*)))\s*$/;

var inputType = {

  /**
   * @ngdoc inputType
   * @name ng.directive:input.text
   *
   * @description
   * Standard HTML text input with angular data binding.
   *
   * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
   * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
   * @param {string=} required Adds `required` validation error key if the value is not entered.
   * @param {string=} ngRequired Adds `required` attribute and `required` validation constraint to
   *    the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use `ngRequired` instead of
   *    `required` when you want to data-bind to the `required` attribute.
   * @param {number=} ngMinlength Sets `minlength` validation error key if the value is shorter than
   *    minlength.
   * @param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets `maxlength` validation error key if the value is longer than
   *    maxlength.
   * @param {string=} ngPattern Sets `pattern` validation error key if the value does not match the
   *    RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is `/regexp/` for inline patterns or `regexp` for
   *    patterns defined as scope expressions.
   * @param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user
   *    interaction with the input element.
   *
   * @example
      <doc:example>
        <doc:source>
         <script>
           function Ctrl($scope) {
             $scope.text = 'guest';
             $scope.word = /^\w*$/;
           }
         </script>
         <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl">
           Single word: <input type="text" name="input" ng-model="text"
                               ng-pattern="word" required>
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required">
             Required!</span>
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.pattern">
             Single word only!</span>

           <tt>text = {{text}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/>
          </form>
        </doc:source>
        <doc:scenario>
          it('should initialize to model', function() {
            expect(binding('text')).toEqual('guest');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true');
          });

          it('should be invalid if empty', function() {
            input('text').enter('');
            expect(binding('text')).toEqual('');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          });

          it('should be invalid if multi word', function() {
            input('text').enter('hello world');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          });
        </doc:scenario>
      </doc:example>
   */
  'text': textInputType,


  /**
   * @ngdoc inputType
   * @name ng.directive:input.number
   *
   * @description
   * Text input with number validation and transformation. Sets the `number` validation
   * error if not a valid number.
   *
   * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
   * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
   * @param {string=} min Sets the `min` validation error key if the value entered is less than `min`.
   * @param {string=} max Sets the `max` validation error key if the value entered is greater than `max`.
   * @param {string=} required Sets `required` validation error key if the value is not entered.
   * @param {string=} ngRequired Adds `required` attribute and `required` validation constraint to
   *    the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use `ngRequired` instead of
   *    `required` when you want to data-bind to the `required` attribute.
   * @param {number=} ngMinlength Sets `minlength` validation error key if the value is shorter than
   *    minlength.
   * @param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets `maxlength` validation error key if the value is longer than
   *    maxlength.
   * @param {string=} ngPattern Sets `pattern` validation error key if the value does not match the
   *    RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is `/regexp/` for inline patterns or `regexp` for
   *    patterns defined as scope expressions.
   * @param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user
   *    interaction with the input element.
   *
   * @example
      <doc:example>
        <doc:source>
         <script>
           function Ctrl($scope) {
             $scope.value = 12;
           }
         </script>
         <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl">
           Number: <input type="number" name="input" ng-model="value"
                          min="0" max="99" required>
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required">
             Required!</span>
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.number">
             Not valid number!</span>
           <tt>value = {{value}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/>
          </form>
        </doc:source>
        <doc:scenario>
          it('should initialize to model', function() {
           expect(binding('value')).toEqual('12');
           expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true');
          });

          it('should be invalid if empty', function() {
           input('value').enter('');
           expect(binding('value')).toEqual('');
           expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          });

          it('should be invalid if over max', function() {
           input('value').enter('123');
           expect(binding('value')).toEqual('');
           expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          });
        </doc:scenario>
      </doc:example>
   */
  'number': numberInputType,


  /**
   * @ngdoc inputType
   * @name ng.directive:input.url
   *
   * @description
   * Text input with URL validation. Sets the `url` validation error key if the content is not a
   * valid URL.
   *
   * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
   * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
   * @param {string=} required Sets `required` validation error key if the value is not entered.
   * @param {string=} ngRequired Adds `required` attribute and `required` validation constraint to
   *    the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use `ngRequired` instead of
   *    `required` when you want to data-bind to the `required` attribute.
   * @param {number=} ngMinlength Sets `minlength` validation error key if the value is shorter than
   *    minlength.
   * @param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets `maxlength` validation error key if the value is longer than
   *    maxlength.
   * @param {string=} ngPattern Sets `pattern` validation error key if the value does not match the
   *    RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is `/regexp/` for inline patterns or `regexp` for
   *    patterns defined as scope expressions.
   * @param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user
   *    interaction with the input element.
   *
   * @example
      <doc:example>
        <doc:source>
         <script>
           function Ctrl($scope) {
             $scope.text = 'http://google.com';
           }
         </script>
         <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl">
           URL: <input type="url" name="input" ng-model="text" required>
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required">
             Required!</span>
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.url">
             Not valid url!</span>
           <tt>text = {{text}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>myForm.$error.url = {{!!myForm.$error.url}}</tt><br/>
          </form>
        </doc:source>
        <doc:scenario>
          it('should initialize to model', function() {
            expect(binding('text')).toEqual('http://google.com');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true');
          });

          it('should be invalid if empty', function() {
            input('text').enter('');
            expect(binding('text')).toEqual('');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          });

          it('should be invalid if not url', function() {
            input('text').enter('xxx');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          });
        </doc:scenario>
      </doc:example>
   */
  'url': urlInputType,


  /**
   * @ngdoc inputType
   * @name ng.directive:input.email
   *
   * @description
   * Text input with email validation. Sets the `email` validation error key if not a valid email
   * address.
   *
   * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
   * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
   * @param {string=} required Sets `required` validation error key if the value is not entered.
   * @param {string=} ngRequired Adds `required` attribute and `required` validation constraint to
   *    the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use `ngRequired` instead of
   *    `required` when you want to data-bind to the `required` attribute.
   * @param {number=} ngMinlength Sets `minlength` validation error key if the value is shorter than
   *    minlength.
   * @param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets `maxlength` validation error key if the value is longer than
   *    maxlength.
   * @param {string=} ngPattern Sets `pattern` validation error key if the value does not match the
   *    RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is `/regexp/` for inline patterns or `regexp` for
   *    patterns defined as scope expressions.
   * @param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user
   *    interaction with the input element.
   *
   * @example
      <doc:example>
        <doc:source>
         <script>
           function Ctrl($scope) {
             $scope.text = 'me@example.com';
           }
         </script>
           <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl">
             Email: <input type="email" name="input" ng-model="text" required>
             <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.required">
               Required!</span>
             <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.email">
               Not valid email!</span>
             <tt>text = {{text}}</tt><br/>
             <tt>myForm.input.$valid = {{myForm.input.$valid}}</tt><br/>
             <tt>myForm.input.$error = {{myForm.input.$error}}</tt><br/>
             <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/>
             <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/>
             <tt>myForm.$error.email = {{!!myForm.$error.email}}</tt><br/>
           </form>
        </doc:source>
        <doc:scenario>
          it('should initialize to model', function() {
            expect(binding('text')).toEqual('me@example.com');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('true');
          });

          it('should be invalid if empty', function() {
            input('text').enter('');
            expect(binding('text')).toEqual('');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          });

          it('should be invalid if not email', function() {
            input('text').enter('xxx');
            expect(binding('myForm.input.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          });
        </doc:scenario>
      </doc:example>
   */
  'email': emailInputType,


  /**
   * @ngdoc inputType
   * @name ng.directive:input.radio
   *
   * @description
   * HTML radio button.
   *
   * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
   * @param {string} value The value to which the expression should be set when selected.
   * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
   * @param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user
   *    interaction with the input element.
   *
   * @example
      <doc:example>
        <doc:source>
         <script>
           function Ctrl($scope) {
             $scope.color = 'blue';
           }
         </script>
         <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl">
           <input type="radio" ng-model="color" value="red">  Red <br/>
           <input type="radio" ng-model="color" value="green"> Green <br/>
           <input type="radio" ng-model="color" value="blue"> Blue <br/>
           <tt>color = {{color}}</tt><br/>
          </form>
        </doc:source>
        <doc:scenario>
          it('should change state', function() {
            expect(binding('color')).toEqual('blue');

            input('color').select('red');
            expect(binding('color')).toEqual('red');
          });
        </doc:scenario>
      </doc:example>
   */
  'radio': radioInputType,


  /**
   * @ngdoc inputType
   * @name ng.directive:input.checkbox
   *
   * @description
   * HTML checkbox.
   *
   * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
   * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
   * @param {string=} ngTrueValue The value to which the expression should be set when selected.
   * @param {string=} ngFalseValue The value to which the expression should be set when not selected.
   * @param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user
   *    interaction with the input element.
   *
   * @example
      <doc:example>
        <doc:source>
         <script>
           function Ctrl($scope) {
             $scope.value1 = true;
             $scope.value2 = 'YES'
           }
         </script>
         <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl">
           Value1: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="value1"> <br/>
           Value2: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="value2"
                          ng-true-value="YES" ng-false-value="NO"> <br/>
           <tt>value1 = {{value1}}</tt><br/>
           <tt>value2 = {{value2}}</tt><br/>
          </form>
        </doc:source>
        <doc:scenario>
          it('should change state', function() {
            expect(binding('value1')).toEqual('true');
            expect(binding('value2')).toEqual('YES');

            input('value1').check();
            input('value2').check();
            expect(binding('value1')).toEqual('false');
            expect(binding('value2')).toEqual('NO');
          });
        </doc:scenario>
      </doc:example>
   */
  'checkbox': checkboxInputType,

  'hidden': noop,
  'button': noop,
  'submit': noop,
  'reset': noop
};


function isEmpty(value) {
  return isUndefined(value) || value === '' || value === null || value !== value;
}


function textInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser) {

  var listener = function() {
    var value = trim(element.val());

    if (ctrl.$viewValue !== value) {
      scope.$apply(function() {
        ctrl.$setViewValue(value);
      });
    }
  };

  // if the browser does support "input" event, we are fine - except on IE9 which doesn't fire the
  // input event on backspace, delete or cut
  if ($sniffer.hasEvent('input')) {
    element.bind('input', listener);
  } else {
    var timeout;

    var deferListener = function() {
      if (!timeout) {
        timeout = $browser.defer(function() {
          listener();
          timeout = null;
        });
      }
    };

    element.bind('keydown', function(event) {
      var key = event.keyCode;

      // ignore
      //    command            modifiers                   arrows
      if (key === 91 || (15 < key && key < 19) || (37 <= key && key <= 40)) return;

      deferListener();
    });

    // if user paste into input using mouse, we need "change" event to catch it
    element.bind('change', listener);

    // if user modifies input value using context menu in IE, we need "paste" and "cut" events to catch it
    if ($sniffer.hasEvent('paste')) {
      element.bind('paste cut', deferListener);
    }
  }


  ctrl.$render = function() {
    element.val(isEmpty(ctrl.$viewValue) ? '' : ctrl.$viewValue);
  };

  // pattern validator
  var pattern = attr.ngPattern,
      patternValidator;

  var validate = function(regexp, value) {
    if (isEmpty(value) || regexp.test(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('pattern', true);
      return value;
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('pattern', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  };

  if (pattern) {
    if (pattern.match(/^\/(.*)\/$/)) {
      pattern = new RegExp(pattern.substr(1, pattern.length - 2));
      patternValidator = function(value) {
        return validate(pattern, value)
      };
    } else {
      patternValidator = function(value) {
        var patternObj = scope.$eval(pattern);

        if (!patternObj || !patternObj.test) {
          throw new Error('Expected ' + pattern + ' to be a RegExp but was ' + patternObj);
        }
        return validate(patternObj, value);
      };
    }

    ctrl.$formatters.push(patternValidator);
    ctrl.$parsers.push(patternValidator);
  }

  // min length validator
  if (attr.ngMinlength) {
    var minlength = int(attr.ngMinlength);
    var minLengthValidator = function(value) {
      if (!isEmpty(value) && value.length < minlength) {
        ctrl.$setValidity('minlength', false);
        return undefined;
      } else {
        ctrl.$setValidity('minlength', true);
        return value;
      }
    };

    ctrl.$parsers.push(minLengthValidator);
    ctrl.$formatters.push(minLengthValidator);
  }

  // max length validator
  if (attr.ngMaxlength) {
    var maxlength = int(attr.ngMaxlength);
    var maxLengthValidator = function(value) {
      if (!isEmpty(value) && value.length > maxlength) {
        ctrl.$setValidity('maxlength', false);
        return undefined;
      } else {
        ctrl.$setValidity('maxlength', true);
        return value;
      }
    };

    ctrl.$parsers.push(maxLengthValidator);
    ctrl.$formatters.push(maxLengthValidator);
  }
}

function numberInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser) {
  textInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser);

  ctrl.$parsers.push(function(value) {
    var empty = isEmpty(value);
    if (empty || NUMBER_REGEXP.test(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('number', true);
      return value === '' ? null : (empty ? value : parseFloat(value));
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('number', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  });

  ctrl.$formatters.push(function(value) {
    return isEmpty(value) ? '' : '' + value;
  });

  if (attr.min) {
    var min = parseFloat(attr.min);
    var minValidator = function(value) {
      if (!isEmpty(value) && value < min) {
        ctrl.$setValidity('min', false);
        return undefined;
      } else {
        ctrl.$setValidity('min', true);
        return value;
      }
    };

    ctrl.$parsers.push(minValidator);
    ctrl.$formatters.push(minValidator);
  }

  if (attr.max) {
    var max = parseFloat(attr.max);
    var maxValidator = function(value) {
      if (!isEmpty(value) && value > max) {
        ctrl.$setValidity('max', false);
        return undefined;
      } else {
        ctrl.$setValidity('max', true);
        return value;
      }
    };

    ctrl.$parsers.push(maxValidator);
    ctrl.$formatters.push(maxValidator);
  }

  ctrl.$formatters.push(function(value) {

    if (isEmpty(value) || isNumber(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('number', true);
      return value;
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('number', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  });
}

function urlInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser) {
  textInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser);

  var urlValidator = function(value) {
    if (isEmpty(value) || URL_REGEXP.test(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('url', true);
      return value;
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('url', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  };

  ctrl.$formatters.push(urlValidator);
  ctrl.$parsers.push(urlValidator);
}

function emailInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser) {
  textInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer, $browser);

  var emailValidator = function(value) {
    if (isEmpty(value) || EMAIL_REGEXP.test(value)) {
      ctrl.$setValidity('email', true);
      return value;
    } else {
      ctrl.$setValidity('email', false);
      return undefined;
    }
  };

  ctrl.$formatters.push(emailValidator);
  ctrl.$parsers.push(emailValidator);
}

function radioInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
  // make the name unique, if not defined
  if (isUndefined(attr.name)) {
    element.attr('name', nextUid());
  }

  element.bind('click', function() {
    if (element[0].checked) {
      scope.$apply(function() {
        ctrl.$setViewValue(attr.value);
      });
    }
  });

  ctrl.$render = function() {
    var value = attr.value;
    element[0].checked = (value == ctrl.$viewValue);
  };

  attr.$observe('value', ctrl.$render);
}

function checkboxInputType(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
  var trueValue = attr.ngTrueValue,
      falseValue = attr.ngFalseValue;

  if (!isString(trueValue)) trueValue = true;
  if (!isString(falseValue)) falseValue = false;

  element.bind('click', function() {
    scope.$apply(function() {
      ctrl.$setViewValue(element[0].checked);
    });
  });

  ctrl.$render = function() {
    element[0].checked = ctrl.$viewValue;
  };

  ctrl.$formatters.push(function(value) {
    return value === trueValue;
  });

  ctrl.$parsers.push(function(value) {
    return value ? trueValue : falseValue;
  });
}


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:textarea
 * @restrict E
 *
 * @description
 * HTML textarea element control with angular data-binding. The data-binding and validation
 * properties of this element are exactly the same as those of the
 * {@link ng.directive:input input element}.
 *
 * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
 * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
 * @param {string=} required Sets `required` validation error key if the value is not entered.
 * @param {string=} ngRequired Adds `required` attribute and `required` validation constraint to
 *    the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use `ngRequired` instead of
 *    `required` when you want to data-bind to the `required` attribute.
 * @param {number=} ngMinlength Sets `minlength` validation error key if the value is shorter than
 *    minlength.
 * @param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets `maxlength` validation error key if the value is longer than
 *    maxlength.
 * @param {string=} ngPattern Sets `pattern` validation error key if the value does not match the
 *    RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is `/regexp/` for inline patterns or `regexp` for
 *    patterns defined as scope expressions.
 * @param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user
 *    interaction with the input element.
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:input
 * @restrict E
 *
 * @description
 * HTML input element control with angular data-binding. Input control follows HTML5 input types
 * and polyfills the HTML5 validation behavior for older browsers.
 *
 * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
 * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
 * @param {string=} required Sets `required` validation error key if the value is not entered.
 * @param {boolean=} ngRequired Sets `required` attribute if set to true
 * @param {number=} ngMinlength Sets `minlength` validation error key if the value is shorter than
 *    minlength.
 * @param {number=} ngMaxlength Sets `maxlength` validation error key if the value is longer than
 *    maxlength.
 * @param {string=} ngPattern Sets `pattern` validation error key if the value does not match the
 *    RegExp pattern expression. Expected value is `/regexp/` for inline patterns or `regexp` for
 *    patterns defined as scope expressions.
 * @param {string=} ngChange Angular expression to be executed when input changes due to user
 *    interaction with the input element.
 *
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.user = {name: 'guest', last: 'visitor'};
         }
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
         <form name="myForm">
           User name: <input type="text" name="userName" ng-model="user.name" required>
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.userName.$error.required">
             Required!</span><br>
           Last name: <input type="text" name="lastName" ng-model="user.last"
             ng-minlength="3" ng-maxlength="10">
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.lastName.$error.minlength">
             Too short!</span>
           <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.lastName.$error.maxlength">
             Too long!</span><br>
         </form>
         <hr>
         <tt>user = {{user}}</tt><br/>
         <tt>myForm.userName.$valid = {{myForm.userName.$valid}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.userName.$error = {{myForm.userName.$error}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.lastName.$valid = {{myForm.lastName.$valid}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.lastName.$error = {{myForm.lastName.$error}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.$error.minlength = {{!!myForm.$error.minlength}}</tt><br>
         <tt>myForm.$error.maxlength = {{!!myForm.$error.maxlength}}</tt><br>
       </div>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should initialize to model', function() {
          expect(binding('user')).toEqual('{"name":"guest","last":"visitor"}');
          expect(binding('myForm.userName.$valid')).toEqual('true');
          expect(binding('myForm.$valid')).toEqual('true');
        });

        it('should be invalid if empty when required', function() {
          input('user.name').enter('');
          expect(binding('user')).toEqual('{"last":"visitor"}');
          expect(binding('myForm.userName.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          expect(binding('myForm.$valid')).toEqual('false');
        });

        it('should be valid if empty when min length is set', function() {
          input('user.last').enter('');
          expect(binding('user')).toEqual('{"name":"guest","last":""}');
          expect(binding('myForm.lastName.$valid')).toEqual('true');
          expect(binding('myForm.$valid')).toEqual('true');
        });

        it('should be invalid if less than required min length', function() {
          input('user.last').enter('xx');
          expect(binding('user')).toEqual('{"name":"guest"}');
          expect(binding('myForm.lastName.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          expect(binding('myForm.lastName.$error')).toMatch(/minlength/);
          expect(binding('myForm.$valid')).toEqual('false');
        });

        it('should be invalid if longer than max length', function() {
          input('user.last').enter('some ridiculously long name');
          expect(binding('user'))
            .toEqual('{"name":"guest"}');
          expect(binding('myForm.lastName.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          expect(binding('myForm.lastName.$error')).toMatch(/maxlength/);
          expect(binding('myForm.$valid')).toEqual('false');
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */
var inputDirective = ['$browser', '$sniffer', function($browser, $sniffer) {
  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    require: '?ngModel',
    link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
      if (ctrl) {
        (inputType[lowercase(attr.type)] || inputType.text)(scope, element, attr, ctrl, $sniffer,
                                                            $browser);
      }
    }
  };
}];

var VALID_CLASS = 'ng-valid',
    INVALID_CLASS = 'ng-invalid',
    PRISTINE_CLASS = 'ng-pristine',
    DIRTY_CLASS = 'ng-dirty';

/**
 * @ngdoc object
 * @name ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController
 *
 * @property {string} $viewValue Actual string value in the view.
 * @property {*} $modelValue The value in the model, that the control is bound to.
 * @property {Array.<Function>} $parsers Array of functions to execute, as a pipeline, whenever
       the control reads value from the DOM.  Each function is called, in turn, passing the value
       through to the next. Used to sanitize / convert the value as well as validation.

       For validation, the parsers should update the validity state using
       {@link ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController#$setValidity $setValidity()},
       and return `undefined` for invalid values.
 *
 * @property {Array.<Function>} $formatters Array of functions to execute, as a pipeline, whenever
 *     the model value changes. Each function is called, in turn, passing the value through to the
 *     next. Used to format / convert values for display in the control and validation.
 *      <pre>
 *      function formatter(value) {
 *        if (value) {
 *          return value.toUpperCase();
 *        }
 *      }
 *      ngModel.$formatters.push(formatter);
 *      </pre>
 * @property {Object} $error An bject hash with all errors as keys.
 *
 * @property {boolean} $pristine True if user has not interacted with the control yet.
 * @property {boolean} $dirty True if user has already interacted with the control.
 * @property {boolean} $valid True if there is no error.
 * @property {boolean} $invalid True if at least one error on the control.
 *
 * @description
 *
 * `NgModelController` provides API for the `ng-model` directive. The controller contains
 * services for data-binding, validation, CSS update, value formatting and parsing. It
 * specifically does not contain any logic which deals with DOM rendering or listening to
 * DOM events. The `NgModelController` is meant to be extended by other directives where, the
 * directive provides DOM manipulation and the `NgModelController` provides the data-binding.
 * Note that you cannot use `NgModelController` in a directive with an isolated scope,
 * as, in that case, the `ng-model` value gets put into the isolated scope and does not get
 * propogated to the parent scope.
 *
 *
 * This example shows how to use `NgModelController` with a custom control to achieve
 * data-binding. Notice how different directives (`contenteditable`, `ng-model`, and `required`)
 * collaborate together to achieve the desired result.
 *
 * <example module="customControl">
    <file name="style.css">
      [contenteditable] {
        border: 1px solid black;
        background-color: white;
        min-height: 20px;
      }

      .ng-invalid {
        border: 1px solid red;
      }

    </file>
    <file name="script.js">
      angular.module('customControl', []).
        directive('contenteditable', function() {
          return {
            restrict: 'A', // only activate on element attribute
            require: '?ngModel', // get a hold of NgModelController
            link: function(scope, element, attrs, ngModel) {
              if(!ngModel) return; // do nothing if no ng-model

              // Specify how UI should be updated
              ngModel.$render = function() {
                element.html(ngModel.$viewValue || '');
              };

              // Listen for change events to enable binding
              element.bind('blur keyup change', function() {
                scope.$apply(read);
              });
              read(); // initialize

              // Write data to the model
              function read() {
                var html = element.html();
                // When we clear the content editable the browser leaves a <br> behind
                // If strip-br attribute is provided then we strip this out
                if( attrs.stripBr && html == '<br>' ) {
                  html = '';
                }
                ngModel.$setViewValue(html);
              }
            }
          };
        });
    </file>
    <file name="index.html">
      <form name="myForm">
       <div contenteditable
            name="myWidget" ng-model="userContent"
            strip-br="true"
            required>Change me!</div>
        <span ng-show="myForm.myWidget.$error.required">Required!</span>
       <hr>
       <textarea ng-model="userContent"></textarea>
      </form>
    </file>
    <file name="scenario.js">
      it('should data-bind and become invalid', function() {
        var contentEditable = element('[contenteditable]');

        expect(contentEditable.text()).toEqual('Change me!');
        input('userContent').enter('');
        expect(contentEditable.text()).toEqual('');
        expect(contentEditable.prop('className')).toMatch(/ng-invalid-required/);
      });
    </file>
 * </example>
 *
 */
var NgModelController = ['$scope', '$exceptionHandler', '$attrs', '$element', '$parse',
    function($scope, $exceptionHandler, $attr, $element, $parse) {
  this.$viewValue = Number.NaN;
  this.$modelValue = Number.NaN;
  this.$parsers = [];
  this.$formatters = [];
  this.$viewChangeListeners = [];
  this.$pristine = true;
  this.$dirty = false;
  this.$valid = true;
  this.$invalid = false;
  this.$name = $attr.name;

  var ngModelGet = $parse($attr.ngModel),
      ngModelSet = ngModelGet.assign;

  if (!ngModelSet) {
    throw Error(NON_ASSIGNABLE_MODEL_EXPRESSION + $attr.ngModel +
        ' (' + startingTag($element) + ')');
  }

  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController#$render
   * @methodOf ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController
   *
   * @description
   * Called when the view needs to be updated. It is expected that the user of the ng-model
   * directive will implement this method.
   */
  this.$render = noop;

  var parentForm = $element.inheritedData('$formController') || nullFormCtrl,
      invalidCount = 0, // used to easily determine if we are valid
      $error = this.$error = {}; // keep invalid keys here


  // Setup initial state of the control
  $element.addClass(PRISTINE_CLASS);
  toggleValidCss(true);

  // convenience method for easy toggling of classes
  function toggleValidCss(isValid, validationErrorKey) {
    validationErrorKey = validationErrorKey ? '-' + snake_case(validationErrorKey, '-') : '';
    $element.
      removeClass((isValid ? INVALID_CLASS : VALID_CLASS) + validationErrorKey).
      addClass((isValid ? VALID_CLASS : INVALID_CLASS) + validationErrorKey);
  }

  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController#$setValidity
   * @methodOf ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController
   *
   * @description
   * Change the validity state, and notifies the form when the control changes validity. (i.e. it
   * does not notify form if given validator is already marked as invalid).
   *
   * This method should be called by validators - i.e. the parser or formatter functions.
   *
   * @param {string} validationErrorKey Name of the validator. the `validationErrorKey` will assign
   *        to `$error[validationErrorKey]=isValid` so that it is available for data-binding.
   *        The `validationErrorKey` should be in camelCase and will get converted into dash-case
   *        for class name. Example: `myError` will result in `ng-valid-my-error` and `ng-invalid-my-error`
   *        class and can be bound to as  `{{someForm.someControl.$error.myError}}` .
   * @param {boolean} isValid Whether the current state is valid (true) or invalid (false).
   */
  this.$setValidity = function(validationErrorKey, isValid) {
    if ($error[validationErrorKey] === !isValid) return;

    if (isValid) {
      if ($error[validationErrorKey]) invalidCount--;
      if (!invalidCount) {
        toggleValidCss(true);
        this.$valid = true;
        this.$invalid = false;
      }
    } else {
      toggleValidCss(false);
      this.$invalid = true;
      this.$valid = false;
      invalidCount++;
    }

    $error[validationErrorKey] = !isValid;
    toggleValidCss(isValid, validationErrorKey);

    parentForm.$setValidity(validationErrorKey, isValid, this);
  };


  /**
   * @ngdoc function
   * @name ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController#$setViewValue
   * @methodOf ng.directive:ngModel.NgModelController
   *
   * @description
   * Read a value from view.
   *
   * This method should be called from within a DOM event handler.
   * For example {@link ng.directive:input input} or
   * {@link ng.directive:select select} directives call it.
   *
   * It internally calls all `$parsers` (including validators) and updates the `$modelValue` and the actual model path.
   * Lastly it calls all registered change listeners.
   *
   * @param {string} value Value from the view.
   */
  this.$setViewValue = function(value) {
    this.$viewValue = value;

    // change to dirty
    if (this.$pristine) {
      this.$dirty = true;
      this.$pristine = false;
      $element.removeClass(PRISTINE_CLASS).addClass(DIRTY_CLASS);
      parentForm.$setDirty();
    }

    forEach(this.$parsers, function(fn) {
      value = fn(value);
    });

    if (this.$modelValue !== value) {
      this.$modelValue = value;
      ngModelSet($scope, value);
      forEach(this.$viewChangeListeners, function(listener) {
        try {
          listener();
        } catch(e) {
          $exceptionHandler(e);
        }
      })
    }
  };

  // model -> value
  var ctrl = this;

  $scope.$watch(function ngModelWatch() {
    var value = ngModelGet($scope);

    // if scope model value and ngModel value are out of sync
    if (ctrl.$modelValue !== value) {

      var formatters = ctrl.$formatters,
          idx = formatters.length;

      ctrl.$modelValue = value;
      while(idx--) {
        value = formatters[idx](value);
      }

      if (ctrl.$viewValue !== value) {
        ctrl.$viewValue = value;
        ctrl.$render();
      }
    }
  });
}];


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngModel
 *
 * @element input
 *
 * @description
 * Is a directive that tells Angular to do two-way data binding. It works together with `input`,
 * `select`, `textarea`. You can easily write your own directives to use `ngModel` as well.
 *
 * `ngModel` is responsible for:
 *
 * - binding the view into the model, which other directives such as `input`, `textarea` or `select`
 *   require,
 * - providing validation behavior (i.e. required, number, email, url),
 * - keeping state of the control (valid/invalid, dirty/pristine, validation errors),
 * - setting related css class onto the element (`ng-valid`, `ng-invalid`, `ng-dirty`, `ng-pristine`),
 * - register the control with parent {@link ng.directive:form form}.
 *
 * Note: `ngModel` will try to bind to the property given by evaluating the expression on the
 * current scope. If the property doesn't already exist on this scope, it will be created
 * implicitly and added to the scope.
 *
 * For basic examples, how to use `ngModel`, see:
 *
 *  - {@link ng.directive:input input}
 *    - {@link ng.directive:input.text text}
 *    - {@link ng.directive:input.checkbox checkbox}
 *    - {@link ng.directive:input.radio radio}
 *    - {@link ng.directive:input.number number}
 *    - {@link ng.directive:input.email email}
 *    - {@link ng.directive:input.url url}
 *  - {@link ng.directive:select select}
 *  - {@link ng.directive:textarea textarea}
 *
 */
var ngModelDirective = function() {
  return {
    require: ['ngModel', '^?form'],
    controller: NgModelController,
    link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrls) {
      // notify others, especially parent forms

      var modelCtrl = ctrls[0],
          formCtrl = ctrls[1] || nullFormCtrl;

      formCtrl.$addControl(modelCtrl);

      element.bind('$destroy', function() {
        formCtrl.$removeControl(modelCtrl);
      });
    }
  };
};


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngChange
 * @restrict E
 *
 * @description
 * Evaluate given expression when user changes the input.
 * The expression is not evaluated when the value change is coming from the model.
 *
 * Note, this directive requires `ngModel` to be present.
 *
 * @element input
 *
 * @example
 * <doc:example>
 *   <doc:source>
 *     <script>
 *       function Controller($scope) {
 *         $scope.counter = 0;
 *         $scope.change = function() {
 *           $scope.counter++;
 *         };
 *       }
 *     </script>
 *     <div ng-controller="Controller">
 *       <input type="checkbox" ng-model="confirmed" ng-change="change()" id="ng-change-example1" />
 *       <input type="checkbox" ng-model="confirmed" id="ng-change-example2" />
 *       <label for="ng-change-example2">Confirmed</label><br />
 *       debug = {{confirmed}}<br />
 *       counter = {{counter}}
 *     </div>
 *   </doc:source>
 *   <doc:scenario>
 *     it('should evaluate the expression if changing from view', function() {
 *       expect(binding('counter')).toEqual('0');
 *       element('#ng-change-example1').click();
 *       expect(binding('counter')).toEqual('1');
 *       expect(binding('confirmed')).toEqual('true');
 *     });
 *
 *     it('should not evaluate the expression if changing from model', function() {
 *       element('#ng-change-example2').click();
 *       expect(binding('counter')).toEqual('0');
 *       expect(binding('confirmed')).toEqual('true');
 *     });
 *   </doc:scenario>
 * </doc:example>
 */
var ngChangeDirective = valueFn({
  require: 'ngModel',
  link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
    ctrl.$viewChangeListeners.push(function() {
      scope.$eval(attr.ngChange);
    });
  }
});


var requiredDirective = function() {
  return {
    require: '?ngModel',
    link: function(scope, elm, attr, ctrl) {
      if (!ctrl) return;
      attr.required = true; // force truthy in case we are on non input element

      var validator = function(value) {
        if (attr.required && (isEmpty(value) || value === false)) {
          ctrl.$setValidity('required', false);
          return;
        } else {
          ctrl.$setValidity('required', true);
          return value;
        }
      };

      ctrl.$formatters.push(validator);
      ctrl.$parsers.unshift(validator);

      attr.$observe('required', function() {
        validator(ctrl.$viewValue);
      });
    }
  };
};


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngList
 *
 * @description
 * Text input that converts between comma-separated string into an array of strings.
 *
 * @element input
 * @param {string=} ngList optional delimiter that should be used to split the value. If
 *   specified in form `/something/` then the value will be converted into a regular expression.
 *
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.names = ['igor', 'misko', 'vojta'];
         }
       </script>
       <form name="myForm" ng-controller="Ctrl">
         List: <input name="namesInput" ng-model="names" ng-list required>
         <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.namesInput.$error.required">
           Required!</span>
         <br>
         <tt>names = {{names}}</tt><br/>
         <tt>myForm.namesInput.$valid = {{myForm.namesInput.$valid}}</tt><br/>
         <tt>myForm.namesInput.$error = {{myForm.namesInput.$error}}</tt><br/>
         <tt>myForm.$valid = {{myForm.$valid}}</tt><br/>
         <tt>myForm.$error.required = {{!!myForm.$error.required}}</tt><br/>
        </form>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should initialize to model', function() {
          expect(binding('names')).toEqual('["igor","misko","vojta"]');
          expect(binding('myForm.namesInput.$valid')).toEqual('true');
          expect(element('span.error').css('display')).toBe('none');
        });

        it('should be invalid if empty', function() {
          input('names').enter('');
          expect(binding('names')).toEqual('[]');
          expect(binding('myForm.namesInput.$valid')).toEqual('false');
          expect(element('span.error').css('display')).not().toBe('none');
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */
var ngListDirective = function() {
  return {
    require: 'ngModel',
    link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
      var match = /\/(.*)\//.exec(attr.ngList),
          separator = match && new RegExp(match[1]) || attr.ngList || ',';

      var parse = function(viewValue) {
        var list = [];

        if (viewValue) {
          forEach(viewValue.split(separator), function(value) {
            if (value) list.push(trim(value));
          });
        }

        return list;
      };

      ctrl.$parsers.push(parse);
      ctrl.$formatters.push(function(value) {
        if (isArray(value)) {
          return value.join(', ');
        }

        return undefined;
      });
    }
  };
};


var CONSTANT_VALUE_REGEXP = /^(true|false|\d+)$/;

var ngValueDirective = function() {
  return {
    priority: 100,
    compile: function(tpl, tplAttr) {
      if (CONSTANT_VALUE_REGEXP.test(tplAttr.ngValue)) {
        return function(scope, elm, attr) {
          attr.$set('value', scope.$eval(attr.ngValue));
        };
      } else {
        return function(scope, elm, attr) {
          scope.$watch(attr.ngValue, function valueWatchAction(value) {
            attr.$set('value', value);
          });
        };
      }
    }
  };
};

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngBind
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngBind` attribute tells Angular to replace the text content of the specified HTML element
 * with the value of a given expression, and to update the text content when the value of that
 * expression changes.
 *
 * Typically, you don't use `ngBind` directly, but instead you use the double curly markup like
 * `{{ expression }}` which is similar but less verbose.
 *
 * It is preferrable to use `ngBind` instead of `{{ expression }}` when a template is momentarily 
 * displayed by the browser in its raw state before Angular compiles it. Since `ngBind` is an 
 * element attribute, it makes the bindings invisible to the user while the page is loading.
 *
 * An alternative solution to this problem would be using the
 * {@link ng.directive:ngCloak ngCloak} directive.
 *
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngBind {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate.
 *
 * @example
 * Enter a name in the Live Preview text box; the greeting below the text box changes instantly.
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.name = 'Whirled';
         }
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
         Enter name: <input type="text" ng-model="name"><br>
         Hello <span ng-bind="name"></span>!
       </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should check ng-bind', function() {
         expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('name')).toBe('Whirled');
         using('.doc-example-live').input('name').enter('world');
         expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('name')).toBe('world');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
var ngBindDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr) {
  element.addClass('ng-binding').data('$binding', attr.ngBind);
  scope.$watch(attr.ngBind, function ngBindWatchAction(value) {
    element.text(value == undefined ? '' : value);
  });
});


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngBindTemplate
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngBindTemplate` directive specifies that the element
 * text content should be replaced with the interpolation of the template
 * in the `ngBindTemplate` attribute.
 * Unlike `ngBind`, the `ngBindTemplate` can contain multiple `{{` `}}`
 * expressions. This directive is needed since some HTML elements
 * (such as TITLE and OPTION) cannot contain SPAN elements.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {string} ngBindTemplate template of form
 *   <tt>{{</tt> <tt>expression</tt> <tt>}}</tt> to eval.
 *
 * @example
 * Try it here: enter text in text box and watch the greeting change.
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.salutation = 'Hello';
           $scope.name = 'World';
         }
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
        Salutation: <input type="text" ng-model="salutation"><br>
        Name: <input type="text" ng-model="name"><br>
        <pre ng-bind-template="{{salutation}} {{name}}!"></pre>
       </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should check ng-bind', function() {
         expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('salutation')).
           toBe('Hello');
         expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('name')).
           toBe('World');
         using('.doc-example-live').input('salutation').enter('Greetings');
         using('.doc-example-live').input('name').enter('user');
         expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('salutation')).
           toBe('Greetings');
         expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('name')).
           toBe('user');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
var ngBindTemplateDirective = ['$interpolate', function($interpolate) {
  return function(scope, element, attr) {
    // TODO: move this to scenario runner
    var interpolateFn = $interpolate(element.attr(attr.$attr.ngBindTemplate));
    element.addClass('ng-binding').data('$binding', interpolateFn);
    attr.$observe('ngBindTemplate', function(value) {
      element.text(value);
    });
  }
}];


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngBindHtmlUnsafe
 *
 * @description
 * Creates a binding that will innerHTML the result of evaluating the `expression` into the current
 * element. *The innerHTML-ed content will not be sanitized!* You should use this directive only if
 * {@link ngSanitize.directive:ngBindHtml ngBindHtml} directive is too
 * restrictive and when you absolutely trust the source of the content you are binding to.
 *
 * See {@link ngSanitize.$sanitize $sanitize} docs for examples.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngBindHtmlUnsafe {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate.
 */
var ngBindHtmlUnsafeDirective = [function() {
  return function(scope, element, attr) {
    element.addClass('ng-binding').data('$binding', attr.ngBindHtmlUnsafe);
    scope.$watch(attr.ngBindHtmlUnsafe, function ngBindHtmlUnsafeWatchAction(value) {
      element.html(value || '');
    });
  };
}];

function classDirective(name, selector) {
  name = 'ngClass' + name;
  return ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr) {
    var oldVal = undefined;

    scope.$watch(attr[name], ngClassWatchAction, true);

    attr.$observe('class', function(value) {
      var ngClass = scope.$eval(attr[name]);
      ngClassWatchAction(ngClass, ngClass);
    });


    if (name !== 'ngClass') {
      scope.$watch('$index', function($index, old$index) {
        var mod = $index & 1;
        if (mod !== old$index & 1) {
          if (mod === selector) {
            addClass(scope.$eval(attr[name]));
          } else {
            removeClass(scope.$eval(attr[name]));
          }
        }
      });
    }


    function ngClassWatchAction(newVal) {
      if (selector === true || scope.$index % 2 === selector) {
        if (oldVal && !equals(newVal,oldVal)) {
          removeClass(oldVal);
        }
        addClass(newVal);
      }
      oldVal = copy(newVal);
    }


    function removeClass(classVal) {
      if (isObject(classVal) && !isArray(classVal)) {
        classVal = map(classVal, function(v, k) { if (v) return k });
      }
      element.removeClass(isArray(classVal) ? classVal.join(' ') : classVal);
    }


    function addClass(classVal) {
      if (isObject(classVal) && !isArray(classVal)) {
        classVal = map(classVal, function(v, k) { if (v) return k });
      }
      if (classVal) {
        element.addClass(isArray(classVal) ? classVal.join(' ') : classVal);
      }
    }
  });
}

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngClass
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngClass` allows you to set CSS classes on HTML an element, dynamically, by databinding
 * an expression that represents all classes to be added.
 *
 * The directive won't add duplicate classes if a particular class was already set.
 *
 * When the expression changes, the previously added classes are removed and only then the
 * new classes are added.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngClass {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval. The result
 *   of the evaluation can be a string representing space delimited class
 *   names, an array, or a map of class names to boolean values. In the case of a map, the
 *   names of the properties whose values are truthy will be added as css classes to the
 *   element.
 *
 * @example
   <example>
     <file name="index.html">
      <input type="button" value="set" ng-click="myVar='my-class'">
      <input type="button" value="clear" ng-click="myVar=''">
      <br>
      <span ng-class="myVar">Sample Text</span>
     </file>
     <file name="style.css">
       .my-class {
         color: red;
       }
     </file>
     <file name="scenario.js">
       it('should check ng-class', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span').prop('className')).not().
           toMatch(/my-class/);

         using('.doc-example-live').element(':button:first').click();

         expect(element('.doc-example-live span').prop('className')).
           toMatch(/my-class/);

         using('.doc-example-live').element(':button:last').click();

         expect(element('.doc-example-live span').prop('className')).not().
           toMatch(/my-class/);
       });
     </file>
   </example>
 */
var ngClassDirective = classDirective('', true);

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngClassOdd
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngClassOdd` and `ngClassEven` directives work exactly as
 * {@link ng.directive:ngClass ngClass}, except it works in
 * conjunction with `ngRepeat` and takes affect only on odd (even) rows.
 *
 * This directive can be applied only within a scope of an
 * {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat ngRepeat}.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngClassOdd {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval. The result
 *   of the evaluation can be a string representing space delimited class names or an array.
 *
 * @example
   <example>
     <file name="index.html">
        <ol ng-init="names=['John', 'Mary', 'Cate', 'Suz']">
          <li ng-repeat="name in names">
           <span ng-class-odd="'odd'" ng-class-even="'even'">
             {{name}}
           </span>
          </li>
        </ol>
     </file>
     <file name="style.css">
       .odd {
         color: red;
       }
       .even {
         color: blue;
       }
     </file>
     <file name="scenario.js">
       it('should check ng-class-odd and ng-class-even', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live li:first span').prop('className')).
           toMatch(/odd/);
         expect(element('.doc-example-live li:last span').prop('className')).
           toMatch(/even/);
       });
     </file>
   </example>
 */
var ngClassOddDirective = classDirective('Odd', 0);

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngClassEven
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngClassOdd` and `ngClassEven` directives work exactly as
 * {@link ng.directive:ngClass ngClass}, except it works in
 * conjunction with `ngRepeat` and takes affect only on odd (even) rows.
 *
 * This directive can be applied only within a scope of an
 * {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat ngRepeat}.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngClassEven {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval. The
 *   result of the evaluation can be a string representing space delimited class names or an array.
 *
 * @example
   <example>
     <file name="index.html">
        <ol ng-init="names=['John', 'Mary', 'Cate', 'Suz']">
          <li ng-repeat="name in names">
           <span ng-class-odd="'odd'" ng-class-even="'even'">
             {{name}} &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
           </span>
          </li>
        </ol>
     </file>
     <file name="style.css">
       .odd {
         color: red;
       }
       .even {
         color: blue;
       }
     </file>
     <file name="scenario.js">
       it('should check ng-class-odd and ng-class-even', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live li:first span').prop('className')).
           toMatch(/odd/);
         expect(element('.doc-example-live li:last span').prop('className')).
           toMatch(/even/);
       });
     </file>
   </example>
 */
var ngClassEvenDirective = classDirective('Even', 1);

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngCloak
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngCloak` directive is used to prevent the Angular html template from being briefly
 * displayed by the browser in its raw (uncompiled) form while your application is loading. Use this
 * directive to avoid the undesirable flicker effect caused by the html template display.
 *
 * The directive can be applied to the `<body>` element, but typically a fine-grained application is
 * prefered in order to benefit from progressive rendering of the browser view.
 *
 * `ngCloak` works in cooperation with a css rule that is embedded within `angular.js` and
 *  `angular.min.js` files. Following is the css rule:
 *
 * <pre>
 * [ng\:cloak], [ng-cloak], [data-ng-cloak], [x-ng-cloak], .ng-cloak, .x-ng-cloak {
 *   display: none !important;
 * }
 * </pre>
 *
 * When this css rule is loaded by the browser, all html elements (including their children) that
 * are tagged with the `ng-cloak` directive are hidden. When Angular comes across this directive
 * during the compilation of the template it deletes the `ngCloak` element attribute, which
 * makes the compiled element visible.
 *
 * For the best result, `angular.js` script must be loaded in the head section of the html file;
 * alternatively, the css rule (above) must be included in the external stylesheet of the
 * application.
 *
 * Legacy browsers, like IE7, do not provide attribute selector support (added in CSS 2.1) so they
 * cannot match the `[ng\:cloak]` selector. To work around this limitation, you must add the css
 * class `ngCloak` in addition to `ngCloak` directive as shown in the example below.
 *
 * @element ANY
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
        <div id="template1" ng-cloak>{{ 'hello' }}</div>
        <div id="template2" ng-cloak class="ng-cloak">{{ 'hello IE7' }}</div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should remove the template directive and css class', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live #template1').attr('ng-cloak')).
           not().toBeDefined();
         expect(element('.doc-example-live #template2').attr('ng-cloak')).
           not().toBeDefined();
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 *
 */
var ngCloakDirective = ngDirective({
  compile: function(element, attr) {
    attr.$set('ngCloak', undefined);
    element.removeClass('ng-cloak');
  }
});

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngController
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngController` directive assigns behavior to a scope. This is a key aspect of how angular
 * supports the principles behind the Model-View-Controller design pattern.
 *
 * MVC components in angular:
 *
 * * Model — The Model is data in scope properties; scopes are attached to the DOM.
 * * View — The template (HTML with data bindings) is rendered into the View.
 * * Controller — The `ngController` directive specifies a Controller class; the class has
 *   methods that typically express the business logic behind the application.
 *
 * Note that an alternative way to define controllers is via the {@link ng.$route $route} service.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @scope
 * @param {expression} ngController Name of a globally accessible constructor function or an
 *     {@link guide/expression expression} that on the current scope evaluates to a
 *     constructor function.
 *
 * @example
 * Here is a simple form for editing user contact information. Adding, removing, clearing, and
 * greeting are methods declared on the $scope by the controller (see source tab). These methods can
 * easily be called from the angular markup. Notice that any changes to the data are automatically
 * reflected in the View without the need for a manual update.
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
      <script>
        function SettingsController($scope) {
          $scope.name = "John Smith";
          $scope.contacts = [
            {type:'phone', value:'408 555 1212'},
            {type:'email', value:'john.smith@example.org'} ];

          $scope.greet = function() {
           alert(this.name);
          };

          $scope.addContact = function() {
           this.contacts.push({type:'email', value:'yourname@example.org'});
          };

          $scope.removeContact = function(contactToRemove) {
           var index = this.contacts.indexOf(contactToRemove);
           this.contacts.splice(index, 1);
          };

          $scope.clearContact = function(contact) {
           contact.type = 'phone';
           contact.value = '';
          };
        }
      </script>
      <div ng-controller="SettingsController">
        Name: <input type="text" ng-model="name"/>
        [ <a href="" ng-click="greet()">greet</a> ]<br/>
        Contact:
        <ul>
          <li ng-repeat="contact in contacts">
            <select ng-model="contact.type">
               <option>phone</option>
               <option>email</option>
            </select>
            <input type="text" ng-model="contact.value"/>
            [ <a href="" ng-click="clearContact(contact)">clear</a>
            | <a href="" ng-click="removeContact(contact)">X</a> ]
          </li>
          <li>[ <a href="" ng-click="addContact()">add</a> ]</li>
       </ul>
      </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should check controller', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live div>:input').val()).toBe('John Smith');
         expect(element('.doc-example-live li:nth-child(1) input').val())
           .toBe('408 555 1212');
         expect(element('.doc-example-live li:nth-child(2) input').val())
           .toBe('john.smith@example.org');

         element('.doc-example-live li:first a:contains("clear")').click();
         expect(element('.doc-example-live li:first input').val()).toBe('');

         element('.doc-example-live li:last a:contains("add")').click();
         expect(element('.doc-example-live li:nth-child(3) input').val())
           .toBe('yourname@example.org');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
var ngControllerDirective = [function() {
  return {
    scope: true,
    controller: '@'
  };
}];

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngCsp
 * @priority 1000
 *
 * @element html
 * @description
 * Enables [CSP (Content Security Policy)](https://developer.mozilla.org/en/Security/CSP) support.
 * 
 * This is necessary when developing things like Google Chrome Extensions.
 * 
 * CSP forbids apps to use `eval` or `Function(string)` generated functions (among other things).
 * For us to be compatible, we just need to implement the "getterFn" in $parse without violating
 * any of these restrictions.
 * 
 * AngularJS uses `Function(string)` generated functions as a speed optimization. By applying `ngCsp`
 * it is be possible to opt into the CSP compatible mode. When this mode is on AngularJS will
 * evaluate all expressions up to 30% slower than in non-CSP mode, but no security violations will
 * be raised.
 * 
 * In order to use this feature put `ngCsp` directive on the root element of the application.
 * 
 * @example
 * This example shows how to apply the `ngCsp` directive to the `html` tag.
   <pre>
     <!doctype html>
     <html ng-app ng-csp>
     ...
     ...
     </html>
   </pre>
 */

var ngCspDirective = ['$sniffer', function($sniffer) {
  return {
    priority: 1000,
    compile: function() {
      $sniffer.csp = true;
    }
  };
}];

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngClick
 *
 * @description
 * The ngClick allows you to specify custom behavior when
 * element is clicked.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngClick {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * click. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
      <button ng-click="count = count + 1" ng-init="count=0">
        Increment
      </button>
      count: {{count}}
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should check ng-click', function() {
         expect(binding('count')).toBe('0');
         element('.doc-example-live :button').click();
         expect(binding('count')).toBe('1');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
/*
 * A directive that allows creation of custom onclick handlers that are defined as angular
 * expressions and are compiled and executed within the current scope.
 *
 * Events that are handled via these handler are always configured not to propagate further.
 */
var ngEventDirectives = {};
forEach(
  'click dblclick mousedown mouseup mouseover mouseout mousemove mouseenter mouseleave submit'.split(' '),
  function(name) {
    var directiveName = directiveNormalize('ng-' + name);
    ngEventDirectives[directiveName] = ['$parse', function($parse) {
      return function(scope, element, attr) {
        var fn = $parse(attr[directiveName]);
        element.bind(lowercase(name), function(event) {
          scope.$apply(function() {
            fn(scope, {$event:event});
          });
        });
      };
    }];
  }
);

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngDblclick
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngDblclick` directive allows you to specify custom behavior on dblclick event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngDblclick {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * dblclick. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngMousedown
 *
 * @description
 * The ngMousedown directive allows you to specify custom behavior on mousedown event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngMousedown {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * mousedown. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngMouseup
 *
 * @description
 * Specify custom behavior on mouseup event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngMouseup {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * mouseup. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngMouseover
 *
 * @description
 * Specify custom behavior on mouseover event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngMouseover {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * mouseover. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngMouseenter
 *
 * @description
 * Specify custom behavior on mouseenter event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngMouseenter {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * mouseenter. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngMouseleave
 *
 * @description
 * Specify custom behavior on mouseleave event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngMouseleave {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * mouseleave. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngMousemove
 *
 * @description
 * Specify custom behavior on mousemove event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngMousemove {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * mousemove. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngKeydown
 *
 * @description
 * Specify custom behavior on keydown event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngKeydown {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * keydown. (Event object is available as `$event` and can be interrogated for keyCode, altKey, etc.)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngKeyup
 *
 * @description
 * Specify custom behavior on keyup event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngKeyup {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * keyup. (Event object is available as `$event` and can be interrogated for keyCode, altKey, etc.)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngKeypress
 *
 * @description
 * Specify custom behavior on keypress event.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngKeypress {@link guide/expression Expression} to evaluate upon
 * keypress. (Event object is available as `$event` and can be interrogated for keyCode, altKey, etc.)
 *
 * @example
 * See {@link ng.directive:ngClick ngClick}
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngSubmit
 *
 * @description
 * Enables binding angular expressions to onsubmit events.
 *
 * Additionally it prevents the default action (which for form means sending the request to the
 * server and reloading the current page) **but only if the form does not contain an `action`
 * attribute**.
 *
 * @element form
 * @param {expression} ngSubmit {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval. (Event object is available as `$event`)
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
      <script>
        function Ctrl($scope) {
          $scope.list = [];
          $scope.text = 'hello';
          $scope.submit = function() {
            if (this.text) {
              this.list.push(this.text);
              this.text = '';
            }
          };
        }
      </script>
      <form ng-submit="submit()" ng-controller="Ctrl">
        Enter text and hit enter:
        <input type="text" ng-model="text" name="text" />
        <input type="submit" id="submit" value="Submit" />
        <pre>list={{list}}</pre>
      </form>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should check ng-submit', function() {
         expect(binding('list')).toBe('[]');
         element('.doc-example-live #submit').click();
         expect(binding('list')).toBe('["hello"]');
         expect(input('text').val()).toBe('');
       });
       it('should ignore empty strings', function() {
         expect(binding('list')).toBe('[]');
         element('.doc-example-live #submit').click();
         element('.doc-example-live #submit').click();
         expect(binding('list')).toBe('["hello"]');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngInclude
 * @restrict ECA
 *
 * @description
 * Fetches, compiles and includes an external HTML fragment.
 *
 * Keep in mind that Same Origin Policy applies to included resources
 * (e.g. ngInclude won't work for cross-domain requests on all browsers and for
 *  file:// access on some browsers).
 *
 * @scope
 *
 * @param {string} ngInclude|src angular expression evaluating to URL. If the source is a string constant,
 *                 make sure you wrap it in quotes, e.g. `src="'myPartialTemplate.html'"`.
 * @param {string=} onload Expression to evaluate when a new partial is loaded.
 *
 * @param {string=} autoscroll Whether `ngInclude` should call {@link ng.$anchorScroll
 *                  $anchorScroll} to scroll the viewport after the content is loaded.
 *
 *                  - If the attribute is not set, disable scrolling.
 *                  - If the attribute is set without value, enable scrolling.
 *                  - Otherwise enable scrolling only if the expression evaluates to truthy value.
 *
 * @example
  <example>
    <file name="index.html">
     <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
       <select ng-model="template" ng-options="t.name for t in templates">
        <option value="">(blank)</option>
       </select>
       url of the template: <tt>{{template.url}}</tt>
       <hr/>
       <div ng-include src="template.url"></div>
     </div>
    </file>
    <file name="script.js">
      function Ctrl($scope) {
        $scope.templates =
          [ { name: 'template1.html', url: 'template1.html'}
          , { name: 'template2.html', url: 'template2.html'} ];
        $scope.template = $scope.templates[0];
      }
     </file>
    <file name="template1.html">
      Content of template1.html
    </file>
    <file name="template2.html">
      Content of template2.html
    </file>
    <file name="scenario.js">
      it('should load template1.html', function() {
       expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-include]').text()).
         toMatch(/Content of template1.html/);
      });
      it('should load template2.html', function() {
       select('template').option('1');
       expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-include]').text()).
         toMatch(/Content of template2.html/);
      });
      it('should change to blank', function() {
       select('template').option('');
       expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-include]').text()).toEqual('');
      });
    </file>
  </example>
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc event
 * @name ng.directive:ngInclude#$includeContentLoaded
 * @eventOf ng.directive:ngInclude
 * @eventType emit on the current ngInclude scope
 * @description
 * Emitted every time the ngInclude content is reloaded.
 */
var ngIncludeDirective = ['$http', '$templateCache', '$anchorScroll', '$compile',
                  function($http,   $templateCache,   $anchorScroll,   $compile) {
  return {
    restrict: 'ECA',
    terminal: true,
    compile: function(element, attr) {
      var srcExp = attr.ngInclude || attr.src,
          onloadExp = attr.onload || '',
          autoScrollExp = attr.autoscroll;

      return function(scope, element) {
        var changeCounter = 0,
            childScope;

        var clearContent = function() {
          if (childScope) {
            childScope.$destroy();
            childScope = null;
          }

          element.html('');
        };

        scope.$watch(srcExp, function ngIncludeWatchAction(src) {
          var thisChangeId = ++changeCounter;

          if (src) {
            $http.get(src, {cache: $templateCache}).success(function(response) {
              if (thisChangeId !== changeCounter) return;

              if (childScope) childScope.$destroy();
              childScope = scope.$new();

              element.html(response);
              $compile(element.contents())(childScope);

              if (isDefined(autoScrollExp) && (!autoScrollExp || scope.$eval(autoScrollExp))) {
                $anchorScroll();
              }

              childScope.$emit('$includeContentLoaded');
              scope.$eval(onloadExp);
            }).error(function() {
              if (thisChangeId === changeCounter) clearContent();
            });
          } else clearContent();
        });
      };
    }
  };
}];

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngInit
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngInit` directive specifies initialization tasks to be executed
 *  before the template enters execution mode during bootstrap.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngInit {@link guide/expression Expression} to eval.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
    <div ng-init="greeting='Hello'; person='World'">
      {{greeting}} {{person}}!
    </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should check greeting', function() {
         expect(binding('greeting')).toBe('Hello');
         expect(binding('person')).toBe('World');
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
var ngInitDirective = ngDirective({
  compile: function() {
    return {
      pre: function(scope, element, attrs) {
        scope.$eval(attrs.ngInit);
      }
    }
  }
});

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngNonBindable
 * @priority 1000
 *
 * @description
 * Sometimes it is necessary to write code which looks like bindings but which should be left alone
 * by angular. Use `ngNonBindable` to make angular ignore a chunk of HTML.
 *
 * @element ANY
 *
 * @example
 * In this example there are two location where a simple binding (`{{}}`) is present, but the one
 * wrapped in `ngNonBindable` is left alone.
 *
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        <div>Normal: {{1 + 2}}</div>
        <div ng-non-bindable>Ignored: {{1 + 2}}</div>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
       it('should check ng-non-bindable', function() {
         expect(using('.doc-example-live').binding('1 + 2')).toBe('3');
         expect(using('.doc-example-live').element('div:last').text()).
           toMatch(/1 \+ 2/);
       });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */
var ngNonBindableDirective = ngDirective({ terminal: true, priority: 1000 });

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngPluralize
 * @restrict EA
 *
 * @description
 * # Overview
 * `ngPluralize` is a directive that displays messages according to en-US localization rules.
 * These rules are bundled with angular.js, but can be overridden
 * (see {@link guide/i18n Angular i18n} dev guide). You configure ngPluralize directive
 * by specifying the mappings between
 * {@link http://unicode.org/repos/cldr-tmp/trunk/diff/supplemental/language_plural_rules.html
 * plural categories} and the strings to be displayed.
 *
 * # Plural categories and explicit number rules
 * There are two
 * {@link http://unicode.org/repos/cldr-tmp/trunk/diff/supplemental/language_plural_rules.html
 * plural categories} in Angular's default en-US locale: "one" and "other".
 *
 * While a pural category may match many numbers (for example, in en-US locale, "other" can match
 * any number that is not 1), an explicit number rule can only match one number. For example, the
 * explicit number rule for "3" matches the number 3. There are examples of plural categories
 * and explicit number rules throughout the rest of this documentation.
 *
 * # Configuring ngPluralize
 * You configure ngPluralize by providing 2 attributes: `count` and `when`.
 * You can also provide an optional attribute, `offset`.
 *
 * The value of the `count` attribute can be either a string or an {@link guide/expression
 * Angular expression}; these are evaluated on the current scope for its bound value.
 *
 * The `when` attribute specifies the mappings between plural categories and the actual
 * string to be displayed. The value of the attribute should be a JSON object.
 *
 * The following example shows how to configure ngPluralize:
 *
 * <pre>
 * <ng-pluralize count="personCount"
                 when="{'0': 'Nobody is viewing.',
 *                      'one': '1 person is viewing.',
 *                      'other': '{} people are viewing.'}">
 * </ng-pluralize>
 *</pre>
 *
 * In the example, `"0: Nobody is viewing."` is an explicit number rule. If you did not
 * specify this rule, 0 would be matched to the "other" category and "0 people are viewing"
 * would be shown instead of "Nobody is viewing". You can specify an explicit number rule for
 * other numbers, for example 12, so that instead of showing "12 people are viewing", you can
 * show "a dozen people are viewing".
 *
 * You can use a set of closed braces(`{}`) as a placeholder for the number that you want substituted
 * into pluralized strings. In the previous example, Angular will replace `{}` with
 * <span ng-non-bindable>`{{personCount}}`</span>. The closed braces `{}` is a placeholder
 * for <span ng-non-bindable>{{numberExpression}}</span>.
 *
 * # Configuring ngPluralize with offset
 * The `offset` attribute allows further customization of pluralized text, which can result in
 * a better user experience. For example, instead of the message "4 people are viewing this document",
 * you might display "John, Kate and 2 others are viewing this document".
 * The offset attribute allows you to offset a number by any desired value.
 * Let's take a look at an example:
 *
 * <pre>
 * <ng-pluralize count="personCount" offset=2
 *               when="{'0': 'Nobody is viewing.',
 *                      '1': '{{person1}} is viewing.',
 *                      '2': '{{person1}} and {{person2}} are viewing.',
 *                      'one': '{{person1}}, {{person2}} and one other person are viewing.',
 *                      'other': '{{person1}}, {{person2}} and {} other people are viewing.'}">
 * </ng-pluralize>
 * </pre>
 *
 * Notice that we are still using two plural categories(one, other), but we added
 * three explicit number rules 0, 1 and 2.
 * When one person, perhaps John, views the document, "John is viewing" will be shown.
 * When three people view the document, no explicit number rule is found, so
 * an offset of 2 is taken off 3, and Angular uses 1 to decide the plural category.
 * In this case, plural category 'one' is matched and "John, Marry and one other person are viewing"
 * is shown.
 *
 * Note that when you specify offsets, you must provide explicit number rules for
 * numbers from 0 up to and including the offset. If you use an offset of 3, for example,
 * you must provide explicit number rules for 0, 1, 2 and 3. You must also provide plural strings for
 * plural categories "one" and "other".
 *
 * @param {string|expression} count The variable to be bounded to.
 * @param {string} when The mapping between plural category to its correspoding strings.
 * @param {number=} offset Offset to deduct from the total number.
 *
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        <script>
          function Ctrl($scope) {
            $scope.person1 = 'Igor';
            $scope.person2 = 'Misko';
            $scope.personCount = 1;
          }
        </script>
        <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
          Person 1:<input type="text" ng-model="person1" value="Igor" /><br/>
          Person 2:<input type="text" ng-model="person2" value="Misko" /><br/>
          Number of People:<input type="text" ng-model="personCount" value="1" /><br/>

          <!--- Example with simple pluralization rules for en locale --->
          Without Offset:
          <ng-pluralize count="personCount"
                        when="{'0': 'Nobody is viewing.',
                               'one': '1 person is viewing.',
                               'other': '{} people are viewing.'}">
          </ng-pluralize><br>

          <!--- Example with offset --->
          With Offset(2):
          <ng-pluralize count="personCount" offset=2
                        when="{'0': 'Nobody is viewing.',
                               '1': '{{person1}} is viewing.',
                               '2': '{{person1}} and {{person2}} are viewing.',
                               'one': '{{person1}}, {{person2}} and one other person are viewing.',
                               'other': '{{person1}}, {{person2}} and {} other people are viewing.'}">
          </ng-pluralize>
        </div>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should show correct pluralized string', function() {
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first').text()).
                                             toBe('1 person is viewing.');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last').text()).
                                                toBe('Igor is viewing.');

          using('.doc-example-live').input('personCount').enter('0');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first').text()).
                                               toBe('Nobody is viewing.');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last').text()).
                                              toBe('Nobody is viewing.');

          using('.doc-example-live').input('personCount').enter('2');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first').text()).
                                            toBe('2 people are viewing.');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last').text()).
                              toBe('Igor and Misko are viewing.');

          using('.doc-example-live').input('personCount').enter('3');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first').text()).
                                            toBe('3 people are viewing.');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last').text()).
                              toBe('Igor, Misko and one other person are viewing.');

          using('.doc-example-live').input('personCount').enter('4');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:first').text()).
                                            toBe('4 people are viewing.');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last').text()).
                              toBe('Igor, Misko and 2 other people are viewing.');
        });

        it('should show data-binded names', function() {
          using('.doc-example-live').input('personCount').enter('4');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last').text()).
              toBe('Igor, Misko and 2 other people are viewing.');

          using('.doc-example-live').input('person1').enter('Di');
          using('.doc-example-live').input('person2').enter('Vojta');
          expect(element('.doc-example-live ng-pluralize:last').text()).
              toBe('Di, Vojta and 2 other people are viewing.');
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */
var ngPluralizeDirective = ['$locale', '$interpolate', function($locale, $interpolate) {
  var BRACE = /{}/g;
  return {
    restrict: 'EA',
    link: function(scope, element, attr) {
      var numberExp = attr.count,
          whenExp = element.attr(attr.$attr.when), // this is because we have {{}} in attrs
          offset = attr.offset || 0,
          whens = scope.$eval(whenExp),
          whensExpFns = {},
          startSymbol = $interpolate.startSymbol(),
          endSymbol = $interpolate.endSymbol();

      forEach(whens, function(expression, key) {
        whensExpFns[key] =
          $interpolate(expression.replace(BRACE, startSymbol + numberExp + '-' +
            offset + endSymbol));
      });

      scope.$watch(function ngPluralizeWatch() {
        var value = parseFloat(scope.$eval(numberExp));

        if (!isNaN(value)) {
          //if explicit number rule such as 1, 2, 3... is defined, just use it. Otherwise,
          //check it against pluralization rules in $locale service
          if (!(value in whens)) value = $locale.pluralCat(value - offset);
           return whensExpFns[value](scope, element, true);
        } else {
          return '';
        }
      }, function ngPluralizeWatchAction(newVal) {
        element.text(newVal);
      });
    }
  };
}];

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngRepeat
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngRepeat` directive instantiates a template once per item from a collection. Each template
 * instance gets its own scope, where the given loop variable is set to the current collection item,
 * and `$index` is set to the item index or key.
 *
 * Special properties are exposed on the local scope of each template instance, including:
 *
 *   * `$index` – `{number}` – iterator offset of the repeated element (0..length-1)
 *   * `$first` – `{boolean}` – true if the repeated element is first in the iterator.
 *   * `$middle` – `{boolean}` – true if the repeated element is between the first and last in the iterator.
 *   * `$last` – `{boolean}` – true if the repeated element is last in the iterator.
 *
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @scope
 * @priority 1000
 * @param {repeat_expression} ngRepeat The expression indicating how to enumerate a collection. Two
 *   formats are currently supported:
 *
 *   * `variable in expression` – where variable is the user defined loop variable and `expression`
 *     is a scope expression giving the collection to enumerate.
 *
 *     For example: `track in cd.tracks`.
 *
 *   * `(key, value) in expression` – where `key` and `value` can be any user defined identifiers,
 *     and `expression` is the scope expression giving the collection to enumerate.
 *
 *     For example: `(name, age) in {'adam':10, 'amalie':12}`.
 *
 * @example
 * This example initializes the scope to a list of names and
 * then uses `ngRepeat` to display every person:
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        <div ng-init="friends = [{name:'John', age:25}, {name:'Mary', age:28}]">
          I have {{friends.length}} friends. They are:
          <ul>
            <li ng-repeat="friend in friends">
              [{{$index + 1}}] {{friend.name}} who is {{friend.age}} years old.
            </li>
          </ul>
        </div>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
         it('should check ng-repeat', function() {
           var r = using('.doc-example-live').repeater('ul li');
           expect(r.count()).toBe(2);
           expect(r.row(0)).toEqual(["1","John","25"]);
           expect(r.row(1)).toEqual(["2","Mary","28"]);
         });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */
var ngRepeatDirective = ngDirective({
  transclude: 'element',
  priority: 1000,
  terminal: true,
  compile: function(element, attr, linker) {
    return function(scope, iterStartElement, attr){
      var expression = attr.ngRepeat;
      var match = expression.match(/^\s*(.+)\s+in\s+(.*)\s*$/),
        lhs, rhs, valueIdent, keyIdent;
      if (! match) {
        throw Error("Expected ngRepeat in form of '_item_ in _collection_' but got '" +
          expression + "'.");
      }
      lhs = match[1];
      rhs = match[2];
      match = lhs.match(/^(?:([\$\w]+)|\(([\$\w]+)\s*,\s*([\$\w]+)\))$/);
      if (!match) {
        throw Error("'item' in 'item in collection' should be identifier or (key, value) but got '" +
            lhs + "'.");
      }
      valueIdent = match[3] || match[1];
      keyIdent = match[2];

      // Store a list of elements from previous run. This is a hash where key is the item from the
      // iterator, and the value is an array of objects with following properties.
      //   - scope: bound scope
      //   - element: previous element.
      //   - index: position
      // We need an array of these objects since the same object can be returned from the iterator.
      // We expect this to be a rare case.
      var lastOrder = new HashQueueMap();

      scope.$watch(function ngRepeatWatch(scope){
        var index, length,
            collection = scope.$eval(rhs),
            cursor = iterStartElement,     // current position of the node
            // Same as lastOrder but it has the current state. It will become the
            // lastOrder on the next iteration.
            nextOrder = new HashQueueMap(),
            arrayBound,
            childScope,
            key, value, // key/value of iteration
            array,
            last;       // last object information {scope, element, index}



        if (!isArray(collection)) {
          // if object, extract keys, sort them and use to determine order of iteration over obj props
          array = [];
          for(key in collection) {
            if (collection.hasOwnProperty(key) && key.charAt(0) != '$') {
              array.push(key);
            }
          }
          array.sort();
        } else {
          array = collection || [];
        }

        arrayBound = array.length-1;

        // we are not using forEach for perf reasons (trying to avoid #call)
        for (index = 0, length = array.length; index < length; index++) {
          key = (collection === array) ? index : array[index];
          value = collection[key];

          last = lastOrder.shift(value);

          if (last) {
            // if we have already seen this object, then we need to reuse the
            // associated scope/element
            childScope = last.scope;
            nextOrder.push(value, last);

            if (index === last.index) {
              // do nothing
              cursor = last.element;
            } else {
              // existing item which got moved
              last.index = index;
              // This may be a noop, if the element is next, but I don't know of a good way to
              // figure this out,  since it would require extra DOM access, so let's just hope that
              // the browsers realizes that it is noop, and treats it as such.
              cursor.after(last.element);
              cursor = last.element;
            }
          } else {
            // new item which we don't know about
            childScope = scope.$new();
          }

          childScope[valueIdent] = value;
          if (keyIdent) childScope[keyIdent] = key;
          childScope.$index = index;

          childScope.$first = (index === 0);
          childScope.$last = (index === arrayBound);
          childScope.$middle = !(childScope.$first || childScope.$last);

          if (!last) {
            linker(childScope, function(clone){
              cursor.after(clone);
              last = {
                  scope: childScope,
                  element: (cursor = clone),
                  index: index
                };
              nextOrder.push(value, last);
            });
          }
        }

        //shrink children
        for (key in lastOrder) {
          if (lastOrder.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
            array = lastOrder[key];
            while(array.length) {
              value = array.pop();
              value.element.remove();
              value.scope.$destroy();
            }
          }
        }

        lastOrder = nextOrder;
      });
    };
  }
});

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngShow
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngShow` and `ngHide` directives show or hide a portion of the DOM tree (HTML)
 * conditionally.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngShow If the {@link guide/expression expression} is truthy
 *     then the element is shown or hidden respectively.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
        Click me: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/>
        Show: <span ng-show="checked">I show up when your checkbox is checked.</span> <br/>
        Hide: <span ng-hide="checked">I hide when your checkbox is checked.</span>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should check ng-show / ng-hide', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span:first:hidden').count()).toEqual(1);
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span:last:visible').count()).toEqual(1);

         input('checked').check();

         expect(element('.doc-example-live span:first:visible').count()).toEqual(1);
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span:last:hidden').count()).toEqual(1);
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
//TODO(misko): refactor to remove element from the DOM
var ngShowDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr){
  scope.$watch(attr.ngShow, function ngShowWatchAction(value){
    element.css('display', toBoolean(value) ? '' : 'none');
  });
});


/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngHide
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngHide` and `ngShow` directives hide or show a portion of the DOM tree (HTML)
 * conditionally.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngHide If the {@link guide/expression expression} is truthy then
 *     the element is shown or hidden respectively.
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example>
     <doc:source>
        Click me: <input type="checkbox" ng-model="checked"><br/>
        Show: <span ng-show="checked">I show up when you checkbox is checked?</span> <br/>
        Hide: <span ng-hide="checked">I hide when you checkbox is checked?</span>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
       it('should check ng-show / ng-hide', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span:first:hidden').count()).toEqual(1);
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span:last:visible').count()).toEqual(1);

         input('checked').check();

         expect(element('.doc-example-live span:first:visible').count()).toEqual(1);
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span:last:hidden').count()).toEqual(1);
       });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 */
//TODO(misko): refactor to remove element from the DOM
var ngHideDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr){
  scope.$watch(attr.ngHide, function ngHideWatchAction(value){
    element.css('display', toBoolean(value) ? 'none' : '');
  });
});

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngStyle
 *
 * @description
 * The `ngStyle` directive allows you to set CSS style on an HTML element conditionally.
 *
 * @element ANY
 * @param {expression} ngStyle {@link guide/expression Expression} which evals to an
 *      object whose keys are CSS style names and values are corresponding values for those CSS
 *      keys.
 *
 * @example
   <example>
     <file name="index.html">
        <input type="button" value="set" ng-click="myStyle={color:'red'}">
        <input type="button" value="clear" ng-click="myStyle={}">
        <br/>
        <span ng-style="myStyle">Sample Text</span>
        <pre>myStyle={{myStyle}}</pre>
     </file>
     <file name="style.css">
       span {
         color: black;
       }
     </file>
     <file name="scenario.js">
       it('should check ng-style', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span').css('color')).toBe('rgb(0, 0, 0)');
         element('.doc-example-live :button[value=set]').click();
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span').css('color')).toBe('rgb(255, 0, 0)');
         element('.doc-example-live :button[value=clear]').click();
         expect(element('.doc-example-live span').css('color')).toBe('rgb(0, 0, 0)');
       });
     </file>
   </example>
 */
var ngStyleDirective = ngDirective(function(scope, element, attr) {
  scope.$watch(attr.ngStyle, function ngStyleWatchAction(newStyles, oldStyles) {
    if (oldStyles && (newStyles !== oldStyles)) {
      forEach(oldStyles, function(val, style) { element.css(style, '');});
    }
    if (newStyles) element.css(newStyles);
  }, true);
});

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngSwitch
 * @restrict EA
 *
 * @description
 * Conditionally change the DOM structure.
 *
 * @usage
 * <ANY ng-switch="expression">
 *   <ANY ng-switch-when="matchValue1">...</ANY>
 *   <ANY ng-switch-when="matchValue2">...</ANY>
 *   ...
 *   <ANY ng-switch-default>...</ANY>
 * </ANY>
 *
 * @scope
 * @param {*} ngSwitch|on expression to match against <tt>ng-switch-when</tt>.
 * @paramDescription
 * On child elments add:
 *
 * * `ngSwitchWhen`: the case statement to match against. If match then this
 *   case will be displayed.
 * * `ngSwitchDefault`: the default case when no other casses match.
 *
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        <script>
          function Ctrl($scope) {
            $scope.items = ['settings', 'home', 'other'];
            $scope.selection = $scope.items[0];
          }
        </script>
        <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
          <select ng-model="selection" ng-options="item for item in items">
          </select>
          <tt>selection={{selection}}</tt>
          <hr/>
          <div ng-switch on="selection" >
            <div ng-switch-when="settings">Settings Div</div>
            <span ng-switch-when="home">Home Span</span>
            <span ng-switch-default>default</span>
          </div>
        </div>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
        it('should start in settings', function() {
         expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-switch]').text()).toMatch(/Settings Div/);
        });
        it('should change to home', function() {
         select('selection').option('home');
         expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-switch]').text()).toMatch(/Home Span/);
        });
        it('should select deafault', function() {
         select('selection').option('other');
         expect(element('.doc-example-live [ng-switch]').text()).toMatch(/default/);
        });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */
var NG_SWITCH = 'ng-switch';
var ngSwitchDirective = valueFn({
  restrict: 'EA',
  require: 'ngSwitch',
  // asks for $scope to fool the BC controller module
  controller: ['$scope', function ngSwitchController() {
    this.cases = {};
  }],
  link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
    var watchExpr = attr.ngSwitch || attr.on,
        selectedTransclude,
        selectedElement,
        selectedScope;

    scope.$watch(watchExpr, function ngSwitchWatchAction(value) {
      if (selectedElement) {
        selectedScope.$destroy();
        selectedElement.remove();
        selectedElement = selectedScope = null;
      }
      if ((selectedTransclude = ctrl.cases['!' + value] || ctrl.cases['?'])) {
        scope.$eval(attr.change);
        selectedScope = scope.$new();
        selectedTransclude(selectedScope, function(caseElement) {
          selectedElement = caseElement;
          element.append(caseElement);
        });
      }
    });
  }
});

var ngSwitchWhenDirective = ngDirective({
  transclude: 'element',
  priority: 500,
  require: '^ngSwitch',
  compile: function(element, attrs, transclude) {
    return function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
      ctrl.cases['!' + attrs.ngSwitchWhen] = transclude;
    };
  }
});

var ngSwitchDefaultDirective = ngDirective({
  transclude: 'element',
  priority: 500,
  require: '^ngSwitch',
  compile: function(element, attrs, transclude) {
    return function(scope, element, attr, ctrl) {
      ctrl.cases['?'] = transclude;
    };
  }
});

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngTransclude
 *
 * @description
 * Insert the transcluded DOM here.
 *
 * @element ANY
 *
 * @example
   <doc:example module="transclude">
     <doc:source>
       <script>
         function Ctrl($scope) {
           $scope.title = 'Lorem Ipsum';
           $scope.text = 'Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor...';
         }

         angular.module('transclude', [])
          .directive('pane', function(){
             return {
               restrict: 'E',
               transclude: true,
               scope: { title:'@' },
               template: '<div style="border: 1px solid black;">' +
                           '<div style="background-color: gray">{{title}}</div>' +
                           '<div ng-transclude></div>' +
                         '</div>'
             };
         });
       </script>
       <div ng-controller="Ctrl">
         <input ng-model="title"><br>
         <textarea ng-model="text"></textarea> <br/>
         <pane title="{{title}}">{{text}}</pane>
       </div>
     </doc:source>
     <doc:scenario>
        it('should have transcluded', function() {
          input('title').enter('TITLE');
          input('text').enter('TEXT');
          expect(binding('title')).toEqual('TITLE');
          expect(binding('text')).toEqual('TEXT');
        });
     </doc:scenario>
   </doc:example>
 *
 */
var ngTranscludeDirective = ngDirective({
  controller: ['$transclude', '$element', function($transclude, $element) {
    $transclude(function(clone) {
      $element.append(clone);
    });
  }]
});

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:ngView
 * @restrict ECA
 *
 * @description
 * # Overview
 * `ngView` is a directive that complements the {@link ng.$route $route} service by
 * including the rendered template of the current route into the main layout (`index.html`) file.
 * Every time the current route changes, the included view changes with it according to the
 * configuration of the `$route` service.
 *
 * @scope
 * @example
    <example module="ngView">
      <file name="index.html">
        <div ng-controller="MainCntl">
          Choose:
          <a href="Book/Moby">Moby</a> |
          <a href="Book/Moby/ch/1">Moby: Ch1</a> |
          <a href="Book/Gatsby">Gatsby</a> |
          <a href="Book/Gatsby/ch/4?key=value">Gatsby: Ch4</a> |
          <a href="Book/Scarlet">Scarlet Letter</a><br/>

          <div ng-view></div>
          <hr />

          <pre>$location.path() = {{$location.path()}}</pre>
          <pre>$route.current.templateUrl = {{$route.current.templateUrl}}</pre>
          <pre>$route.current.params = {{$route.current.params}}</pre>
          <pre>$route.current.scope.name = {{$route.current.scope.name}}</pre>
          <pre>$routeParams = {{$routeParams}}</pre>
        </div>
      </file>

      <file name="book.html">
        controller: {{name}}<br />
        Book Id: {{params.bookId}}<br />
      </file>

      <file name="chapter.html">
        controller: {{name}}<br />
        Book Id: {{params.bookId}}<br />
        Chapter Id: {{params.chapterId}}
      </file>

      <file name="script.js">
        angular.module('ngView', [], function($routeProvider, $locationProvider) {
          $routeProvider.when('/Book/:bookId', {
            templateUrl: 'book.html',
            controller: BookCntl
          });
          $routeProvider.when('/Book/:bookId/ch/:chapterId', {
            templateUrl: 'chapter.html',
            controller: ChapterCntl
          });

          // configure html5 to get links working on jsfiddle
          $locationProvider.html5Mode(true);
        });

        function MainCntl($scope, $route, $routeParams, $location) {
          $scope.$route = $route;
          $scope.$location = $location;
          $scope.$routeParams = $routeParams;
        }

        function BookCntl($scope, $routeParams) {
          $scope.name = "BookCntl";
          $scope.params = $routeParams;
        }

        function ChapterCntl($scope, $routeParams) {
          $scope.name = "ChapterCntl";
          $scope.params = $routeParams;
        }
      </file>

      <file name="scenario.js">
        it('should load and compile correct template', function() {
          element('a:contains("Moby: Ch1")').click();
          var content = element('.doc-example-live [ng-view]').text();
          expect(content).toMatch(/controller\: ChapterCntl/);
          expect(content).toMatch(/Book Id\: Moby/);
          expect(content).toMatch(/Chapter Id\: 1/);

          element('a:contains("Scarlet")').click();
          content = element('.doc-example-live [ng-view]').text();
          expect(content).toMatch(/controller\: BookCntl/);
          expect(content).toMatch(/Book Id\: Scarlet/);
        });
      </file>
    </example>
 */


/**
 * @ngdoc event
 * @name ng.directive:ngView#$viewContentLoaded
 * @eventOf ng.directive:ngView
 * @eventType emit on the current ngView scope
 * @description
 * Emitted every time the ngView content is reloaded.
 */
var ngViewDirective = ['$http', '$templateCache', '$route', '$anchorScroll', '$compile',
                       '$controller',
               function($http,   $templateCache,   $route,   $anchorScroll,   $compile,
                        $controller) {
  return {
    restrict: 'ECA',
    terminal: true,
    link: function(scope, element, attr) {
      var lastScope,
          onloadExp = attr.onload || '';

      scope.$on('$routeChangeSuccess', update);
      update();


      function destroyLastScope() {
        if (lastScope) {
          lastScope.$destroy();
          lastScope = null;
        }
      }

      function clearContent() {
        element.html('');
        destroyLastScope();
      }

      function update() {
        var locals = $route.current && $route.current.locals,
            template = locals && locals.$template;

        if (template) {
          element.html(template);
          destroyLastScope();

          var link = $compile(element.contents()),
              current = $route.current,
              controller;

          lastScope = current.scope = scope.$new();
          if (current.controller) {
            locals.$scope = lastScope;
            controller = $controller(current.controller, locals);
            element.children().data('$ngControllerController', controller);
          }

          link(lastScope);
          lastScope.$emit('$viewContentLoaded');
          lastScope.$eval(onloadExp);

          // $anchorScroll might listen on event...
          $anchorScroll();
        } else {
          clearContent();
        }
      }
    }
  };
}];

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:script
 *
 * @description
 * Load content of a script tag, with type `text/ng-template`, into `$templateCache`, so that the
 * template can be used by `ngInclude`, `ngView` or directive templates.
 *
 * @restrict E
 * @param {'text/ng-template'} type must be set to `'text/ng-template'`
 *
 * @example
  <doc:example>
    <doc:source>
      <script type="text/ng-template" id="/tpl.html">
        Content of the template.
      </script>

      <a ng-click="currentTpl='/tpl.html'" id="tpl-link">Load inlined template</a>
      <div id="tpl-content" ng-include src="currentTpl"></div>
    </doc:source>
    <doc:scenario>
      it('should load template defined inside script tag', function() {
        element('#tpl-link').click();
        expect(element('#tpl-content').text()).toMatch(/Content of the template/);
      });
    </doc:scenario>
  </doc:example>
 */
var scriptDirective = ['$templateCache', function($templateCache) {
  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    terminal: true,
    compile: function(element, attr) {
      if (attr.type == 'text/ng-template') {
        var templateUrl = attr.id,
            // IE is not consistent, in scripts we have to read .text but in other nodes we have to read .textContent
            text = element[0].text;

        $templateCache.put(templateUrl, text);
      }
    }
  };
}];

/**
 * @ngdoc directive
 * @name ng.directive:select
 * @restrict E
 *
 * @description
 * HTML `SELECT` element with angular data-binding.
 *
 * # `ngOptions`
 *
 * Optionally `ngOptions` attribute can be used to dynamically generate a list of `<option>`
 * elements for a `<select>` element using an array or an object obtained by evaluating the
 * `ngOptions` expression.
 *
 * When an item in the `<select>` menu is selected, the value of array element or object property
 * represented by the selected option will be bound to the model identified by the `ngModel`
 * directive of the parent select element.
 *
 * Optionally, a single hard-coded `<option>` element, with the value set to an empty string, can
 * be nested into the `<select>` element. This element will then represent `null` or "not selected"
 * option. See example below for demonstration.
 *
 * Note: `ngOptions` provides iterator facility for `<option>` element which should be used instead
 * of {@link ng.directive:ngRepeat ngRepeat} when you want the
 * `select` model to be bound to a non-string value. This is because an option element can currently
 * be bound to string values only.
 *
 * @param {string} ngModel Assignable angular expression to data-bind to.
 * @param {string=} name Property name of the form under which the control is published.
 * @param {string=} required The control is considered valid only if value is entered.
 * @param {string=} ngRequired Adds `required` attribute and `required` validation constraint to
 *    the element when the ngRequired expression evaluates to true. Use `ngRequired` instead of
 *    `required` when you want to data-bind to the `required` attribute.
 * @param {comprehension_expression=} ngOptions in one of the following forms:
 *
 *   * for array data sources:
 *     * `label` **`for`** `value` **`in`** `array`
 *     * `select` **`as`** `label` **`for`** `value` **`in`** `array`
 *     * `label`  **`group by`** `group` **`for`** `value` **`in`** `array`
 *     * `select` **`as`** `label` **`group by`** `group` **`for`** `value` **`in`** `array`
 *   * for object data sources:
 *     * `label` **`for (`**`key` **`,`** `value`**`) in`** `object`
 *     * `select` **`as`** `label` **`for (`**`key` **`,`** `value`**`) in`** `object`
 *     * `label` **`group by`** `group` **`for (`**`key`**`,`** `value`**`) in`** `object`
 *     * `select` **`as`** `label` **`group by`** `group`
 *         **`for` `(`**`key`**`,`** `value`**`) in`** `object`
 *
 * Where:
 *
 *   * `array` / `object`: an expression which evaluates to an array / object to iterate over.
 *   * `value`: local variable which will refer to each item in the `array` or each property value
 *      of `object` during iteration.
 *   * `key`: local variable which will refer to a property name in `object` during iteration.
 *   * `label`: The result of this expression will be the label for `<option>` element. The
 *     `expression` will most likely refer to the `value` variable (e.g. `value.propertyName`).
 *   * `select`: The result of this expression will be bound to the model of the parent `<select>`
 *      element. If not specified, `select` expression will default to `value`.
 *   * `group`: The result of this expression will be used to group options using the `<optgroup>`
 *      DOM element.
 *
 * @example
    <doc:example>
      <doc:source>
        <script>
        function MyCntrl($scope) {
          $scope.colors = [
            {name:'black', shade:'dark'},
            {name:'white', shade:'light'},
            {name:'red', shade:'dark'},
            {name:'blue', shade:'dark'},
            {name:'yellow', shade:'light'}
          ];
          $scope.color = $scope.colors[2]; // red
        }
        </script>
        <div ng-controller="MyCntrl">
          <ul>
            <li ng-repeat="color in colors">
              Name: <input ng-model="color.name">
              [<a href ng-click="colors.splice($index, 1)">X</a>]
            </li>
            <li>
              [<a href ng-click="colors.push({})">add</a>]
            </li>
          </ul>
          <hr/>
          Color (null not allowed):
          <select ng-model="color" ng-options="c.name for c in colors"></select><br>

          Color (null allowed):
          <span  class="nullable">
            <select ng-model="color" ng-options="c.name for c in colors">
              <option value="">-- chose color --</option>
            </select>
          </span><br/>

          Color grouped by shade:
          <select ng-model="color" ng-options="c.name group by c.shade for c in colors">
          </select><br/>


          Select <a href ng-click="color={name:'not in list'}">bogus</a>.<br>
          <hr/>
          Currently selected: {{ {selected_color:color}  }}
          <div style="border:solid 1px black; height:20px"
               ng-style="{'background-color':color.name}">
          </div>
        </div>
      </doc:source>
      <doc:scenario>
         it('should check ng-options', function() {
           expect(binding('{selected_color:color}')).toMatch('red');
           select('color').option('0');
           expect(binding('{selected_color:color}')).toMatch('black');
           using('.nullable').select('color').option('');
           expect(binding('{selected_color:color}')).toMatch('null');
         });
      </doc:scenario>
    </doc:example>
 */

var ngOptionsDirective = valueFn({ terminal: true });
var selectDirective = ['$compile', '$parse', function($compile,   $parse) {
                         //0000111110000000000022220000000000000000000000333300000000000000444444444444444440000000005555555555555555500000006666666666666666600000000000000077770
  var NG_OPTIONS_REGEXP = /^\s*(.*?)(?:\s+as\s+(.*?))?(?:\s+group\s+by\s+(.*))?\s+for\s+(?:([\$\w][\$\w\d]*)|(?:\(\s*([\$\w][\$\w\d]*)\s*,\s*([\$\w][\$\w\d]*)\s*\)))\s+in\s+(.*)$/,
      nullModelCtrl = {$setViewValue: noop};

  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    require: ['select', '?ngModel'],
    controller: ['$element', '$scope', '$attrs', function($element, $scope, $attrs) {
      var self = this,
          optionsMap = {},
          ngModelCtrl = nullModelCtrl,
          nullOption,
          unknownOption;


      self.databound = $attrs.ngModel;


      self.init = function(ngModelCtrl_, nullOption_, unknownOption_) {
        ngModelCtrl = ngModelCtrl_;
        nullOption = nullOption_;
        unknownOption = unknownOption_;
      }


      self.addOption = function(value) {
        optionsMap[value] = true;

        if (ngModelCtrl.$viewValue == value) {
          $element.val(value);
          if (unknownOption.parent()) unknownOption.remove();
        }
      };


      self.removeOption = function(value) {
        if (this.hasOption(value)) {
          delete optionsMap[value];
          if (ngModelCtrl.$viewValue == value) {
            this.renderUnknownOption(value);
          }
        }
      };


      self.renderUnknownOption = function(val) {
        var unknownVal = '? ' + hashKey(val) + ' ?';
        unknownOption.val(unknownVal);
        $element.prepend(unknownOption);
        $element.val(unknownVal);
        unknownOption.prop('selected', true); // needed for IE
      }


      self.hasOption = function(value) {
        return optionsMap.hasOwnProperty(value);
      }

      $scope.$on('$destroy', function() {
        // disable unknown option so that we don't do work when the whole select is being destroyed
        self.renderUnknownOption = noop;
      });
    }],

    link: function(scope, element, attr, ctrls) {
      // if ngModel is not defined, we don't need to do anything
      if (!ctrls[1]) return;

      var selectCtrl = ctrls[0],
          ngModelCtrl = ctrls[1],
          multiple = attr.multiple,
          optionsExp = attr.ngOptions,
          nullOption = false, // if false, user will not be able to select it (used by ngOptions)
          emptyOption,
          // we can't just jqLite('<option>') since jqLite is not smart enough
          // to create it in <select> and IE barfs otherwise.
          optionTemplate = jqLite(document.createElement('option')),
          optGroupTemplate =jqLite(document.createElement('optgroup')),
          unknownOption = optionTemplate.clone();

      // find "null" option
      for(var i = 0, children = element.children(), ii = children.length; i < ii; i++) {
        if (children[i].value == '') {
          emptyOption = nullOption = children.eq(i);
          break;
        }
      }

      selectCtrl.init(ngModelCtrl, nullOption, unknownOption);

      // required validator
      if (multiple && (attr.required || attr.ngRequired)) {
        var requiredValidator = function(value) {
          ngModelCtrl.$setValidity('required', !attr.required || (value && value.length));
          return value;
        };

        ngModelCtrl.$parsers.push(requiredValidator);
        ngModelCtrl.$formatters.unshift(requiredValidator);

        attr.$observe('required', function() {
          requiredValidator(ngModelCtrl.$viewValue);
        });
      }

      if (optionsExp) Options(scope, element, ngModelCtrl);
      else if (multiple) Multiple(scope, element, ngModelCtrl);
      else Single(scope, element, ngModelCtrl, selectCtrl);


      ////////////////////////////



      function Single(scope, selectElement, ngModelCtrl, selectCtrl) {
        ngModelCtrl.$render = function() {
          var viewValue = ngModelCtrl.$viewValue;

          if (selectCtrl.hasOption(viewValue)) {
            if (unknownOption.parent()) unknownOption.remove();
            selectElement.val(viewValue);
            if (viewValue === '') emptyOption.prop('selected', true); // to make IE9 happy
          } else {
            if (isUndefined(viewValue) && emptyOption) {
              selectElement.val('');
            } else {
              selectCtrl.renderUnknownOption(viewValue);
            }
          }
        };

        selectElement.bind('change', function() {
          scope.$apply(function() {
            if (unknownOption.parent()) unknownOption.remove();
            ngModelCtrl.$setViewValue(selectElement.val());
          });
        });
      }

      function Multiple(scope, selectElement, ctrl) {
        var lastView;
        ctrl.$render = function() {
          var items = new HashMap(ctrl.$viewValue);
          forEach(selectElement.find('option'), function(option) {
            option.selected = isDefined(items.get(option.value));
          });
        };

        // we have to do it on each watch since ngModel watches reference, but
        // we need to work of an array, so we need to see if anything was inserted/removed
        scope.$watch(function selectMultipleWatch() {
          if (!equals(lastView, ctrl.$viewValue)) {
            lastView = copy(ctrl.$viewValue);
            ctrl.$render();
          }
        });

        selectElement.bind('change', function() {
          scope.$apply(function() {
            var array = [];
            forEach(selectElement.find('option'), function(option) {
              if (option.selected) {
                array.push(option.value);
              }
            });
            ctrl.$setViewValue(array);
          });
        });
      }

      function Options(scope, selectElement, ctrl) {
        var match;

        if (! (match = optionsExp.match(NG_OPTIONS_REGEXP))) {
          throw Error(
            "Expected ngOptions in form of '_select_ (as _label_)? for (_key_,)?_value_ in _collection_'" +
            " but got '" + optionsExp + "'.");
        }

        var displayFn = $parse(match[2] || match[1]),
            valueName = match[4] || match[6],
            keyName = match[5],
            groupByFn = $parse(match[3] || ''),
            valueFn = $parse(match[2] ? match[1] : valueName),
            valuesFn = $parse(match[7]),
            // This is an array of array of existing option groups in DOM. We try to reuse these if possible
            // optionGroupsCache[0] is the options with no option group
            // optionGroupsCache[?][0] is the parent: either the SELECT or OPTGROUP element
            optionGroupsCache = [[{element: selectElement, label:''}]];

        if (nullOption) {
          // compile the element since there might be bindings in it
          $compile(nullOption)(scope);

          // remove the class, which is added automatically because we recompile the element and it
          // becomes the compilation root
          nullOption.removeClass('ng-scope');

          // we need to remove it before calling selectElement.html('') because otherwise IE will
          // remove the label from the element. wtf?
          nullOption.remove();
        }

        // clear contents, we'll add what's needed based on the model
        selectElement.html('');

        selectElement.bind('change', function() {
          scope.$apply(function() {
            var optionGroup,
                collection = valuesFn(scope) || [],
                locals = {},
                key, value, optionElement, index, groupIndex, length, groupLength;

            if (multiple) {
              value = [];
              for (groupIndex = 0, groupLength = optionGroupsCache.length;
                   groupIndex < groupLength;
                   groupIndex++) {
                // list of options for that group. (first item has the parent)
                optionGroup = optionGroupsCache[groupIndex];

                for(index = 1, length = optionGroup.length; index < length; index++) {
                  if ((optionElement = optionGroup[index].element)[0].selected) {
                    key = optionElement.val();
                    if (keyName) locals[keyName] = key;
                    locals[valueName] = collection[key];
                    value.push(valueFn(scope, locals));
                  }
                }
              }
            } else {
              key = selectElement.val();
              if (key == '?') {
                value = undefined;
              } else if (key == ''){
                value = null;
              } else {
                locals[valueName] = collection[key];
                if (keyName) locals[keyName] = key;
                value = valueFn(scope, locals);
              }
            }
            ctrl.$setViewValue(value);
          });
        });

        ctrl.$render = render;

        // TODO(vojta): can't we optimize this ?
        scope.$watch(render);

        function render() {
          var optionGroups = {'':[]}, // Temporary location for the option groups before we render them
              optionGroupNames = [''],
              optionGroupName,
              optionGroup,
              option,
              existingParent, existingOptions, existingOption,
              modelValue = ctrl.$modelValue,
              values = valuesFn(scope) || [],
              keys = keyName ? sortedKeys(values) : values,
              groupLength, length,
              groupIndex, index,
              locals = {},
              selected,
              selectedSet = false, // nothing is selected yet
              lastElement,
              element,
              label;

          if (multiple) {
            selectedSet = new HashMap(modelValue);
          }

          // We now build up the list of options we need (we merge later)
          for (index = 0; length = keys.length, index < length; index++) {
               locals[valueName] = values[keyName ? locals[keyName]=keys[index]:index];
               optionGroupName = groupByFn(scope, locals) || '';
            if (!(optionGroup = optionGroups[optionGroupName])) {
              optionGroup = optionGroups[optionGroupName] = [];
              optionGroupNames.push(optionGroupName);
            }
            if (multiple) {
              selected = selectedSet.remove(valueFn(scope, locals)) != undefined;
            } else {
              selected = modelValue === valueFn(scope, locals);
              selectedSet = selectedSet || selected; // see if at least one item is selected
            }
            label = displayFn(scope, locals); // what will be seen by the user
            label = label === undefined ? '' : label; // doing displayFn(scope, locals) || '' overwrites zero values
            optionGroup.push({
              id: keyName ? keys[index] : index,   // either the index into array or key from object
              label: label,
              selected: selected                   // determine if we should be selected
            });
          }
          if (!multiple) {
            if (nullOption || modelValue === null) {
              // insert null option if we have a placeholder, or the model is null
              optionGroups[''].unshift({id:'', label:'', selected:!selectedSet});
            } else if (!selectedSet) {
              // option could not be found, we have to insert the undefined item
              optionGroups[''].unshift({id:'?', label:'', selected:true});
            }
          }

          // Now we need to update the list of DOM nodes to match the optionGroups we computed above
          for (groupIndex = 0, groupLength = optionGroupNames.length;
               groupIndex < groupLength;
               groupIndex++) {
            // current option group name or '' if no group
            optionGroupName = optionGroupNames[groupIndex];

            // list of options for that group. (first item has the parent)
            optionGroup = optionGroups[optionGroupName];

            if (optionGroupsCache.length <= groupIndex) {
              // we need to grow the optionGroups
              existingParent = {
                element: optGroupTemplate.clone().attr('label', optionGroupName),
                label: optionGroup.label
              };
              existingOptions = [existingParent];
              optionGroupsCache.push(existingOptions);
              selectElement.append(existingParent.element);
            } else {
              existingOptions = optionGroupsCache[groupIndex];
              existingParent = existingOptions[0];  // either SELECT (no group) or OPTGROUP element

              // update the OPTGROUP label if not the same.
              if (existingParent.label != optionGroupName) {
                existingParent.element.attr('label', existingParent.label = optionGroupName);
              }
            }

            lastElement = null;  // start at the beginning
            for(index = 0, length = optionGroup.length; index < length; index++) {
              option = optionGroup[index];
              if ((existingOption = existingOptions[index+1])) {
                // reuse elements
                lastElement = existingOption.element;
                if (existingOption.label !== option.label) {
                  lastElement.text(existingOption.label = option.label);
                }
                if (existingOption.id !== option.id) {
                  lastElement.val(existingOption.id = option.id);
                }
                // lastElement.prop('selected') provided by jQuery has side-effects
                if (lastElement[0].selected !== option.selected) {
                  lastElement.prop('selected', (existingOption.selected = option.selected));
                }
              } else {
                // grow elements

                // if it's a null option
                if (option.id === '' && nullOption) {
                  // put back the pre-compiled element
                  element = nullOption;
                } else {
                  // jQuery(v1.4.2) Bug: We should be able to chain the method calls, but
                  // in this version of jQuery on some browser the .text() returns a string
                  // rather then the element.
                  (element = optionTemplate.clone())
                      .val(option.id)
                      .attr('selected', option.selected)
                      .text(option.label);
                }

                existingOptions.push(existingOption = {
                    element: element,
                    label: option.label,
                    id: option.id,
                    selected: option.selected
                });
                if (lastElement) {
                  lastElement.after(element);
                } else {
                  existingParent.element.append(element);
                }
                lastElement = element;
              }
            }
            // remove any excessive OPTIONs in a group
            index++; // increment since the existingOptions[0] is parent element not OPTION
            while(existingOptions.length > index) {
              existingOptions.pop().element.remove();
            }
          }
          // remove any excessive OPTGROUPs from select
          while(optionGroupsCache.length > groupIndex) {
            optionGroupsCache.pop()[0].element.remove();
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}];

var optionDirective = ['$interpolate', function($interpolate) {
  var nullSelectCtrl = {
    addOption: noop,
    removeOption: noop
  };

  return {
    restrict: 'E',
    priority: 100,
    compile: function(element, attr) {
      if (isUndefined(attr.value)) {
        var interpolateFn = $interpolate(element.text(), true);
        if (!interpolateFn) {
          attr.$set('value', element.text());
        }
      }

      return function (scope, element, attr) {
        var selectCtrlName = '$selectController',
            parent = element.parent(),
            selectCtrl = parent.data(selectCtrlName) ||
              parent.parent().data(selectCtrlName); // in case we are in optgroup

        if (selectCtrl && selectCtrl.databound) {
          // For some reason Opera defaults to true and if not overridden this messes up the repeater.
          // We don't want the view to drive the initialization of the model anyway.
          element.prop('selected', false);
        } else {
          selectCtrl = nullSelectCtrl;
        }

        if (interpolateFn) {
          scope.$watch(interpolateFn, function interpolateWatchAction(newVal, oldVal) {
            attr.$set('value', newVal);
            if (newVal !== oldVal) selectCtrl.removeOption(oldVal);
            selectCtrl.addOption(newVal);
          });
        } else {
          selectCtrl.addOption(attr.value);
        }

        element.bind('$destroy', function() {
          selectCtrl.removeOption(attr.value);
        });
      };
    }
  }
}];

var styleDirective = valueFn({
  restrict: 'E',
  terminal: true
});

  //try to bind to jquery now so that one can write angular.element().read()
  //but we will rebind on bootstrap again.
  bindJQuery();

  publishExternalAPI(angular);

  jqLite(document).ready(function() {
    angularInit(document, bootstrap);
  });

})(window, document);
angular.element(document).find('head').append('<style type="text/css">@charset "UTF-8";[ng\\:cloak],[ng-cloak],[data-ng-cloak],[x-ng-cloak],.ng-cloak,.x-ng-cloak{display:none !important;}ng\\:form{display:block;}</style>');
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