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   * Copyright (c) OSGi Alliance (2004, 2013). All Rights Reserved.
   * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
   * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
   * You may obtain a copy of the License at
  * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
  * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
  * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
  * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  * limitations under the License.
Controls access to management objects in the Device Management Tree (DMT). It is intended to control local access to the DMT. DmtPermission target string identifies the management object URI and the action field lists the OMA DM commands that are permitted on the management object. Example:
 DmtPermission("./OSGi/bundles", "Add,Replace,Get");
This means that owner of this permission can execute Add, Replace and Get commands on the ./OSGi/bundles management object. It is possible to use wildcards in both the target and the actions field. Wildcard in the target field means that the owner of the permission can access children nodes of the target node. Example:
 DmtPermission("./OSGi/bundles/*", "Get");
This means that owner of this permission has Get access on every child node of ./OSGi/bundles. The asterix does not necessarily have to follow a '/' character. For example the "./OSGi/a*" target matches the ./OSGi/applications subtree.

If wildcard is present in the actions field, all legal OMA DM commands are allowed on the designated nodes(s) by the owner of the permission. Action names are interpreted case-insensitively, but the canonical action string returned by getActions() uses the forms defined by the action constants.

$Id: 5fc6f3d37c4fac64313f532ad9bd9f07bc48dc39 $
 public class DmtPermission extends Permission {
 	private static final long	serialVersionUID	= -1910969921419407809L;

Holders of DmtPermission with the Add action present can create new nodes in the DMT, that is they are authorized to execute the createInteriorNode() and createLeafNode() methods of the DmtSession. This action is also required for the copy() command, which needs to perform node creation operations (among others).
 	public static final String	ADD"Add";

Holders of DmtPermission with the Delete action present can delete nodes from the DMT, that is they are authorized to execute the deleteNode() method of the DmtSession.
 	public static final String	DELETE"Delete";

Holders of DmtPermission with the Exec action present can execute nodes in the DMT, that is they are authorized to call the execute() method of the DmtSession.
 	public static final String	EXEC"Exec";

Holders of DmtPermission with the Get action present can query DMT node value or properties, that is they are authorized to execute the isLeafNode(), getNodeAcl(), getEffectiveNodeAcl(), getMetaNode(), getNodeValue(), getChildNodeNames(), getNodeTitle(), getNodeVersion(), getNodeTimeStamp(), getNodeSize() and getNodeType() methods of the DmtSession. This action is also required for the copy() command, which needs to perform node query operations (among others).
 	public static final String	GET"Get";

Holders of DmtPermission with the Replace action present can update DMT node value or properties, that is they are authorized to execute the setNodeAcl(), setNodeTitle(), setNodeValue(), setNodeType() and renameNode() methods of the DmtSession. This action is also be required for the copy() command if the original node had a title property (which must be set in the new node).
	public static final String	REPLACE"Replace";
	// does this permission have a wildcard at the end?
	private final boolean		prefixPath;
	// the name without the wildcard on the end
	private final String		path;
	// the actions mask
	private final int			mask;
	// the canonical action string (redundant)
	private final String		actions;

Creates a new DmtPermission object for the specified DMT URI with the specified actions. The given URI can be:
  • "*", which matches all valid (see org.osgi.service.dmt.Uri.isValidUri(java.lang.String)) absolute URIs;
  • the prefix of an absolute URI followed by the * character (for example "./OSGi/L*"), which matches all valid absolute URIs beginning with the given prefix;
  • a valid absolute URI, which matches itself.

Since the * character is itself a valid URI character, it can appear as the last character of a valid absolute URI. To distinguish this case from using * as a wildcard, the * character at the end of the URI must be escaped with the \ charater. For example the URI "./a*" matches "./a", "./aa", "./a/b" etc. while "./a\*" matches "./a*" only.

The actions string must either be "*" to allow all actions, or it must contain a non-empty subset of the valid actions, defined as constants in this class.

dmtUri URI of the management object (or subtree)
actions OMA DM actions allowed
java.lang.NullPointerException if any of the parameters are null
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if any of the parameters are invalid
	public DmtPermission(String dmtUriString actions) {
		 = getMask(actions);
		if (dmtUri == null)
			throw new NullPointerException("'dmtUri' parameter must not be " + "null.");
		 = dmtUri.endsWith("*") && !dmtUri.endsWith("\\*");
		if () {
			dmtUri = dmtUri.substring(0, dmtUri.length() - 1);
			// the single "*" as dmtUri is the only valid non-absolute URI param
			if (dmtUri.length() == 0) {
				 = "";
		// if URI ends with "/*", remove it before the validity check
		if ( && dmtUri.endsWith("/") && !dmtUri.endsWith("\\/"))
			checkUri(dmtUri.substring(0, dmtUri.length() - 1));
		// canonicalize URI: remove escapes from non-special characters
		StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(dmtUri);
		int i = 0;
		while (i < sb.length()) { // length can decrease during the loop!
			if (sb.charAt(i) == '\\') {
				// there must be a next character after a '\' in a valid URI
				char nextCh = sb.charAt(i + 1);
				if (nextCh != '/' && nextCh != '\\')
					sb.deleteCharAt(i); // remove the extra '\'
		 = sb.toString();
	private void checkUri(String dmtUrithrows IllegalArgumentException {
		if (!Uri.isValidUri(dmtUri))
			throw new IllegalArgumentException("'dmtUri' parameter does not " + "contain a valid URI.");
		if (!Uri.isAbsoluteUri(dmtUri))
			throw new IllegalArgumentException("'dmtUri' parameter does not " + "contain an absolute URI.");

Checks whether the given object is equal to this DmtPermission instance. Two DmtPermission instances are equal if they have the same target string and the same action mask. The "*" action mask is considered equal to a mask containing all actions.

obj the object to compare to this DmtPermission instance
true if the parameter represents the same permissions as this instance
	public boolean equals(Object obj) {
		if (obj == this)
			return true;
		if (!(obj instanceof DmtPermission))
			return false;
		DmtPermission other = (DmtPermissionobj;
		return  == other.mask &&  == other.prefixPath && .equals(other.path);

Returns the String representation of the action list. The allowed actions are listed in the following order: Add, Delete, Exec, Get, Replace. The wildcard character is not used in the returned string, even if the class was created using the "*" wildcard.

canonical action list for this permission object
	public String getActions() {
		return ;

Returns the hash code for this permission object. If two DmtPermission objects are equal according to the equals(java.lang.Object) method, then calling this method on each of the two DmtPermission objects must produce the same integer result.

hash code for this permission object
	public int hashCode() {
		return new Integer().hashCode() ^ new Boolean().hashCode() ^ .hashCode();

Checks if this DmtPermission object "implies" the specified permission. This method returns false if and only if at least one of the following conditions are fulfilled for the specified permission:
  • it is not a DmtPermission
  • its set of actions contains an action not allowed by this permission
  • the set of nodes defined by its path contains a node not defined by the path of this permission

p the permission to check for implication
true if this DmtPermission instance implies the specified permission
	public boolean implies(Permission p) {
		if (!(p instanceof DmtPermission))
			return false;
		if (( & other.mask) != other.mask)
			return false;
		return impliesPath(other);

Returns a new PermissionCollection object for storing DmtPermission objects.

the new PermissionCollection
	// parses the given action string, and returns the corresponding action mask
	private static int getMask(String actions) {
		int mask = 0;
		if (actions == null)
			throw new NullPointerException("'actions' parameter cannot be null.");
		if (actions.equals("*"))
		// empty tokens (swallowed by StringTokenizer) are not considered errors
		StringTokenizer st = new StringTokenizer(actions",");
		while (st.hasMoreTokens()) {
			String action = st.nextToken().trim();
			if (action.equalsIgnoreCase()) {
				mask |= .;
				if (action.equalsIgnoreCase()) {
					mask |= .;
					if (action.equalsIgnoreCase()) {
						mask |= .;
						if (action.equalsIgnoreCase()) {
							mask |= .;
							if (action.equalsIgnoreCase()) {
								mask |= .;
								throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid action '" + action + "'");
		if (mask == 0)
			throw new IllegalArgumentException("Action mask cannot be empty.");
		return mask;
	// generates the canonical string representation of the action list
	private static String canonicalActions(int mask) {
		StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
		return sb.toString();
	// if 'flag' appears in 'mask', appends the 'action' string to the contents
	// of 'sb', separated by a comma if needed
	private static void addAction(StringBuffer sbint maskint flagString action) {
		if ((mask & flag) != 0) {
			if (sb.length() > 0)
	// used by DmtPermissionCollection to retrieve the action mask
	int getMask() {
		return ;
	// returns true if the path parameter of the given DmtPermission is
	// implied by the path of this permission, i.e. this path is a prefix of the
	// other path, but ends with a *, or the two path strings are equal
	boolean impliesPath(DmtPermission p) {
		return  ? p.path.startsWith() : !p.prefixPath && p.path.equals();
Represents a homogeneous collection of DmtPermission objects.
	private static final long	serialVersionUID	= -4172481774562012941L;
	// OPTIMIZE keep a special flag for permissions of "*" path
	private ArrayList			perms;

Create an empty DmtPermissionCollection object.
		 = new ArrayList();

Adds a permission to the DmtPermissionCollection.

permission the Permission object to add
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException if the permission is not a DmtPermission
java.lang.SecurityException if this DmtPermissionCollection object has been marked readonly
	public void add(Permission permission) {
		if (!(permission instanceof DmtPermission))
			throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot add permission, invalid permission type: " + permission);
		if (isReadOnly())
			throw new SecurityException("Cannot add permission, collection is marked read-only.");
		// No need to synchronize because all adds are done sequentially
		// before any implies() calls

Check whether this set of permissions implies the permission specified in the parameter.

permission the Permission object to compare
true if the parameter permission is a proper subset of the permissions in the collection, false otherwise
	public boolean implies(Permission permission) {
		if (!(permission instanceof DmtPermission))
			return false;
		DmtPermission other = (DmtPermissionpermission;
		int required = other.getMask();
		int available = 0;
		int needed = required;
		while (i.hasNext()) {
			if (((needed & p.getMask()) != 0) && p.impliesPath(other)) {
				available |= p.getMask();
				if ((available & required) == required)
					return true;
				needed = (required ^ available);
		return false;

Returns an enumeration of all the DmtPermission objects in the container. The returned value cannot be null.

an enumeration of all the DmtPermission objects
	public Enumeration elements() {
		// Convert Iterator into Enumeration
		return Collections.enumeration();
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