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  package junit.framework;
A test case defines the fixture to run multiple tests. To define a test case
  1. implement a subclass of TestCase
  2. define instance variables that store the state of the fixture
  3. initialize the fixture state by overriding setUp()
  4. clean-up after a test by overriding tearDown().
Each test runs in its own fixture so there can be no side effects among test runs. Here is an example:
 public class MathTest extends TestCase {
    protected double fValue1;
    protected double fValue2;

    protected void setUp() {
       fValue1= 2.0;
       fValue2= 3.0;
For each test implement a method which interacts with the fixture. Verify the expected results with assertions specified by calling Assert.assertTrue(java.lang.String,boolean) with a boolean.
    public void testAdd() {
       double result= fValue1 + fValue2;
       assertTrue(result == 5.0);
Once the methods are defined you can run them. The framework supports both a static type safe and more dynamic way to run a test. In the static way you override the runTest method and define the method to be invoked. A convenient way to do so is with an anonymous inner class.
 TestCase test= new MathTest("add") {
    public void runTest() {
The dynamic way uses reflection to implement runTest(). It dynamically finds and invokes a method. In this case the name of the test case has to correspond to the test method to be run.
 TestCase test= new MathTest("testAdd");;
The tests to be run can be collected into a TestSuite. JUnit provides different test runners which can run a test suite and collect the results. A test runner either expects a static method suite as the entry point to get a test to run or it will extract the suite automatically.
 public static Test suite() {
    suite.addTest(new MathTest("testAdd"));
    suite.addTest(new MathTest("testDivideByZero"));
    return suite;

 public abstract class TestCase extends Assert implements Test {
the name of the test case
 	private String fName;

No-arg constructor to enable serialization. This method is not intended to be used by mere mortals without calling setName().
 	public TestCase() {
Constructs a test case with the given name.
 	public TestCase(String name) {
Counts the number of test cases executed by run(TestResult result).
 	public int countTestCases() {
 		return 1;
Creates a default TestResult object

See also:
	protected TestResult createResult() {
	    return new TestResult();
A convenience method to run this test, collecting the results with a default TestResult object.

See also:
	public TestResult run() {
		return result;
Runs the test case and collects the results in TestResult.
	public void run(TestResult result) {;
Runs the bare test sequence.

java.lang.Throwable if any exception is thrown
	public void runBare() throws Throwable {
		Throwable exceptionnull;
		try {
catch (Throwable running) {
		finally {
			try {
catch (Throwable tearingDown) {
				if (exception == nullexceptiontearingDown;
		if (exception != nullthrow exception;
Override to run the test and assert its state.

java.lang.Throwable if any exception is thrown
	protected void runTest() throws Throwable {
		assertNotNull("TestCase.fName cannot be null"); // Some VMs crash when calling getMethod(null,null);
		Method runMethodnull;
		try {
			// use getMethod to get all public inherited
			// methods. getDeclaredMethods returns all
			// methods of this class but excludes the
			// inherited ones.
			runMethodgetClass().getMethod(, (Class[])null);
catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
			fail("Method \""++"\" not found");
		if (!Modifier.isPublic(runMethod.getModifiers())) {
			fail("Method \""++"\" should be public");
		try {
			throw e;
Sets up the fixture, for example, open a network connection. This method is called before a test is executed.
	protected void setUp() throws Exception {
Tears down the fixture, for example, close a network connection. This method is called after a test is executed.
	protected void tearDown() throws Exception {
Returns a string representation of the test case
	public String toString() {
	    return getName() + "(" + getClass().getName() + ")";
Gets the name of a TestCase

the name of the TestCase
	public String getName() {
		return ;
Sets the name of a TestCase

name the name to set
	public void setName(String name) {
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